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Akhilesh Srivastava The article is Contributed by Akhilesh Srivastava.

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Road cachseo.com of the biggest social-economic menaces in India, with over 150,000 people losing lives on the road every year, is denting the Indian economy by nearly 4.5 trillion INR i.e., roughly 3.14% of Indian GDP.

Road cachseo.com 2.0, aims lớn tackle this issue by introducing technology into all 4 Es of road cachseo.com i.e., Education, Engineering, Enforcement and Emergency Care. There are plenty of scopes for Startups khổng lồ explore more innovative technologies for use in the Road cachseo.com sector và develop scalable and financially viable models.

4 E’s of Road cachseo.com
Education
Enforcement
Engineering
Emergency Care of Road Accident Victims

4 E’s of Road cachseo.com

The main thrust of accident prevention và control across the world has been on 4 E’s i.e. (i) Education; (ii) Engineering; (iii) Enforcement; và (iv) Emergency care of road accident victims.

Education

Various Road cachseo.com Campaigns involving audio-visual and other print media, as well as NGOs, are used to raise awareness. The government has been undertaking various publicity measures through TV spots/Radio spots, cinema slides, distribution of posters, books on road cachseo.com signage & signs, organizing Road cachseo.com Week, Seminars, và Exhibitions to raise road cachseo.com awareness among the general public.

But despite these measures, a noticeable reduction in accidents figures is not achieved. It is time to showroom technology for driver’s education or training right from the issuance of driving licenses lớn periodical upskilling. Hãng sản xuất intel recently designed one program of drivers training. There can be di động Apps, đoạn phim games, và engaging audio videos for the training of drivers.

Over 80 % of accidents are caused due by avoidable negligence or faults of drivers such as overspeeding, rash driving, poor driving skills, stress, and fatigue. A lot of accidents are mostly by single truck owners, who come from an unorganized ecosystem & drive continuously to maximize their trips. Low-cost công nghệ solutions lượt thích HUMSAFER Mobile tiện ích can compensate for human limitations và reduce accidents.

Nearly 10% of road accident-related deaths involves children (aged between 5 and 14). Only 17% of schools have roads that showed school zone signage và only 11.5% have tốc độ limits displayed. Thus, there is an urgent need to lớn create Safe School Zone, which not only saves children from accidents but also prepares them for future.


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Enforcement

Nearly 15 million reported traffic violations take place annually. These violations lead khổng lồ collisions và accidents. It is practically impossible lớn detect such a large number of traffic violations and penalize them manually. As a result, a lot of violators are never caught & penalized, thus encouraging others.

The Motor Vehicles Act of 2019 and the Central Motor Vehicles Rules include several rules that, if properly implemented, will reduce traffic offences by drivers. The state government is largely responsible for enforcing these regulations lớn enhance road cachseo.com.

Thus, there is an urgent need lớn use the latest technologies, Io
T, ANPR, CCTV và Speed cameras to detect traffic violations and penalize the violators by automated system transparently. Considering the size, population and federal structure of India, the bottom-up approach on the PPP mã sản phẩm is the only viable solution.

The duty of the enforcement authorities will include the campaigns among the people about drunk/drug driving và the consequences, consequences on no use of seat belts. Also, the points on license, disqualification of license & driving, imprisonment, training courses should be given a priority.

Engineering

Efficient engineering methods which is a combination of technology & skills will help khổng lồ get a better cachseo.com measure. Creating road environment safe và suitable for all users and needs reliable data lớn identify where, when, how và why accidents occur Key approaches - Accident investigation, road cachseo.com management, road cachseo.com audit.

Making the road network safer by engineering measures is the most effective strategy lớn reduce collisions in the short lớn medium term by directly addressing road environment problems và attempting to counter or reduce the scope for incorrect road user behaviour/performance. As a result, the majority of stakeholders have established comprehensive Road cachseo.com Plans và programmes, with particular funding allocation for engineering measures that have proven to lớn be effective in reducing collisions.

Collision/Accident Investigation (AI) – A reactive approach that involves investigating hotspots & analysing collision và casualty information và trends to lớn identify areas with higher-than-average collision rates.

Collision / Accident Reduction (AR) – A Road cachseo.com Engineer can use AI to determine whether any of the causation factors highlighted within an existing known pattern can be addressed through cachseo.com engineering remedial measures, thereby helping to lớn reduce collision frequency/severity at that site, and if so, whether there are several potential solutions and which ones are best for each particular site.

Collision / Accident Prevention (AP) – Following the AI & AR processes, a Road cachseo.com Engineer develops an effective Road cachseo.com Strategy/Plan and Danger Reduction Plans, as well as providing advice on Road cachseo.com Education, Training, & Publicity Programs. The Road cachseo.com Engineer also implements best practices in AP through the proactive process of Road cachseo.com Auditing.

Emergency Care of Road Accident Victims

Post-accident emergency care is a serious concern in India as nearly 50% of people die on the spot or while transiting to lớn the hospital/trauma centres. If the occurrence of accidents và location can be shared to lớn provide emergency care within golden hours a lot of lives can be saved. Similarly, if travellers can be informed about rest areas và their occupancy status & repairs workshops on the fly, it can be very helpful khổng lồ them and will reduce fatigue & stress while driving.

National Highway Accident Relief Service Scheme (NHARSS): - The Scheme entails providing cranes và ambulances to States/UTs/NGOs for relief and rescue measures in the aftermath of accidents by way of evacuating road accident victims to lớn the nearest medical aid centre & for clearing the accident site.

The emergency care must include the Incident Response in the khung of Emergency Medical Services which will also include fire & rescue & the removal of the hazardous materials from the roads. The other Technological solutions which will result in Emergency Care are the use of E Calls. Setting up connected Level-1 trauma centres and rescue services for immediate target response lớn incidents và golden hours survival rates tracking can be helpful.

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SEWashington, DC 20590 202-366-4000


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Highway cachseo.com Improvement Program National Scan Tour

Chapter 8–Considering all "4E"s"

Highly successful programs look beyond just engineering solutions to lớn address cachseo.com issues. When appropriate, consideration is given lớn possible solutions and countermeasures in all "4E"s" (i.e. Enforcement, Education, Emergency Response, và Engineering). In some cases, States have developed alternate procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of these projects so they can be included in the overall ranking of HSIP projects.


SPOTLIGHT ON cachseo.com:

Utah"s Zero Fatalities Program

UDOT has a coordinated effort to send consistent messages related khổng lồ Zero Fatalities. The campaign promotes the message of Zero Fatalities, which originated with “Put the Brakes on Fatalities Day.” All public information campaigns are branded as a joint effort, showing the cooperative atmosphere, và developed lớn address some behavioral issues identified in the SHSP. Funding is appropriated for paid truyền thông media and public outreach activities. Outreach efforts include more than 50 events every year, including some at high schools that target typical risky behaviors associated with younger drivers. The biennial Zero Fatalities conference is another way in which UDOT brings partners together khổng lồ advance the traffic cachseo.com culture within Utah. UDOT has collected data on behavioral-related crashes that demonstrate it has addressed driver behavior issues, particularly in the area of restraint use.

The Traffic & cachseo.com Division manages the Zero Fatalities program, reporting directly to the cachseo.com Programs Engineer & Director of Traffic and cachseo.com. The Zero Fatalities program office has obtained grassroots-originated ideas and tư vấn through its extensive public involvement program. Roughly 90 percent of citizens in the State recognize the program. The program is funded with an appropriation of approximately $2 million annually. UDOT used HSIP funds for this activity in the past but, are no longer eligible under the new federal transportation bill, the December 2015 Fixing America"s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act. The Traffic & cachseo.com Division is working to find other sources of funding to keep the Zero Fatalities program running into the future.

Utah"s approach to lớn cachseo.com outreach has been to create positive and/or thought-provoking messages, particularly related lớn restraint use and driving habits. As UDOT & DPS have worked together to lớn achieve saturation in their public relations efforts, the agencies have made use of many available outlets, including variable message signs. The “Monday Messages” mix a cachseo.com theme for a given week by displaying a cachseo.com-focused message on variable message sign boards throughout the State. Utah"s Zero Fatalities staff manage an active social truyền thông media presence, using social truyền thông and video sharing platforms with a single, cohesive kinh doanh strategy lớn disseminate the message using conventional và social media outlets & in cooperation with UDOT Traffic Operations. Figure 14 demonstrates the public"s interest in UDOT"s social media outreach efforts.

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Figure 14. UDOT"s zero fatalities Facebook posts reach a large audience.


Public Outreach & Involvement

In many of the Host States, public information campaigns & public involvement were key features of HSIP implementation. Utah"s DPS & Zero Fatalities offices coordinate extensive public information campaigns and NHDOT provides SHSP and Driving Toward Zero outreach at community events that reach the substantial number of out-of-State visitors, particularly motorcyclists.

Addressing Driver Behavioral Issues

UDOT recognition that 93 percent of crashes have a correctable behavioral component has led to lớn the development of a strong behavioral education program. This necessarily involves extensive coordination with the DPS, the agency responsible for administering NHTSA funding. In Utah, the DPS and UDOT have executive-level coordination concerning traffic cachseo.com, providing for a coordinated và cooperative approach. Utah outreach efforts also include explaining and building support for cachseo.com engineering analyses.

The Utah Department of Public cachseo.com began using HSIP funds a decade ago as a result of limitations in other funding options. For example, 23 U.S.C. 402 và 405b funds are restricted for use solely in seatbelt outreach efforts. HSIP helps supplement these efforts to lớn target areas that cannot be covered with 402 & 405b funds. HSIP funds are transferred for a specific project or enforcement activity area & UDOT is billed by DPS for reimbursement by means of a memorandum of understanding between the agencies. At this time, DPS receives reimbursement only for enforcement programs related to seat belt use, exceeding the posted tốc độ limit, và aggressive driving. DPS & UDOT share the view that behavioral change is the responsibility of all State agencies with activities not merely limited to lớn law enforcement initiatives. Everything within DPS that is funded is designed to support a specific performance measure.


UDOT và Utah DPS coordinate to lớn deliver a strong driver behavioral education program using HSIP funding.

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In Oregon, all projects have a community outreach component, typically managed by ODOT staff. These behavioral programs involve coordination between the GHSO (Governor"s Highway cachseo.com Office) Transportation cachseo.com Division (TSD) Region cachseo.com Coordinator and ARTS staff in each Region. The importance of involving the public in the project development process was explicitly identified as a key khổng lồ project success. ODOT indicated that the solicitation of public đầu vào on project scope and nội dung increases public satisfaction with projects & provides a platform for conveying the importance of highway cachseo.com investments.


ODOT coordinates with the GHSO Region cachseo.com Coordinator & ARTS staff in each Region lớn deliver community outreach behavioral programs.


Mass
DOT is addressing bicycle and pedestrian issues with a specific bicycle/pedestrian cachseo.com program which includes enforcement, awareness, education & infrastructure. A $500,000 behavioral public information chiến dịch for bicycle/pedestrian crashes is being used khổng lồ address all modes & yielding/right-of-way behavior in particular. Because of its relationships with local law enforcement agencies and the State Police, Mass
DOT has been able to lớn partner with regional advocacy groups Mass
Bike and Walk Boston in an effort to lớn deliver messages regarding effective behavioral campaigns khổng lồ law enforcement personnel. Mass
Bike partnered with the Boston Police Department & the Massachusetts Department of Public Health and produced a series of videos regarding the application of traffic laws related to bicycles, raising awareness of how often motorists and vulnerable users engage in unsafe behavior. (16) The videos are shown during the police department roll calls so that police personnel can immediately apply what they have learned.


Mass
DOT"s partnership with regional advocacy groups, local law enforcement, and the Massachusetts DPH has helped with delivery of a bicycle/pedestrian cachseo.com program that includes enforcement, awareness, education, & infrastructure.


Zero Fatalities Messaging and media Outreach

NHDOT selected “Driving Toward Zero” as an alternative to lớn “Toward Zero Deaths,” emphasizing the positive aspect of the program & its focus on the goal và not the present outcomes. When NHDOT developed the Driving Toward Zero (DTZ) campaign, the initial goal of the campaign was to raise awareness of DTZ, including branding & marketing. The program, deployed by the NHDOT staff, was the impetus in transforming the SHSP from an engineering document lớn an easily-understandable resource that is a tool for engaging the public. NHDOT issued a contract to lớn a sale firm và worked with that firm to publicize DTZ throughout New Hampshire, including through the use of trained DTZ ambassadors who staffed the various festivals và events throughout NH, reaching both residents and visitors. HSIP funding was used to lớn conduct this effort, amounting lớn $250,000 for this & a second contract.


NHDOT contracts with sale firms to assist in the delivery of their Driving Toward Zero campaign. The chiến dịch also involves coordination between NHDOT & the New Hampshire State Police to promote the SHSP strategies & maximize the investment of HSIP funds.


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Figure 15. Brochure created under NHDOT"s Driving Toward Zero program.

Using a second marketing contract, NHDOT performed public outreach activities related khổng lồ the goals of the new SHSP, building on the awareness efforts & illustrating their partnerships with the New Hampshire State Police (NHSP) and other State agencies. SHSP strategies have aided agencies in their efforts to target resources on emphasis areas, such as exceeding the posted speed limit, distracted driving, and, notably, Liquor Control Board efforts khổng lồ use driving under the influence arrest information lớn target liquor establishments in high-risk areas & ensure compliance lớn liquor service laws. In addition, the program"s efforts have created public outreach tools related to lớn the new hands-free legislation.

The emphasis on achieving the DTZ goal has led khổng lồ change within the State government as well, such as including the New Hampshire Office of Highway cachseo.com in the Department of cachseo.com, with oversight from the New Hampshire State Police. NHDOT và NHSP are working closely together, using established relationships, lớn leverage this new arrangement in promoting the SHSP & maximizing the investment of HSIP funds.

All of these campaigns, delivered on a contract overseen by NHDOT, require approval from the Governor"s office. Obtaining support from that office khổng lồ use HSIP funds for this purpose was instrumental in developing trust that NHDOT was promoting the interests of official policy through the campaign.

Tribal Outreach Efforts

Utah has conducted tribal outreach efforts focusing on data collection on tribal lands. The Four Corners Conference helps tribes plan for traffic cachseo.com outcomes with a focus on child passenger cachseo.com and teen driving. The Department of Public cachseo.com"s work with the Native American Advisory group is leading lớn successful efforts khổng lồ promote occupant protection by using HSIP funds to lớn supply oto seats in tribal areas.

Road cachseo.com Audit

Nearly every Scan Tour State identified RSAs as a key component of screening, project development, và project design.


SPOTLIGHT ON cachseo.com:

Requiring RSAs for all HSIP Projects in Massachusetts

Massachusetts was the only Scan Tour State to require the completion of an RSA for all project development activities that include locations on the 5% List, including non-HSIP projects. This use of RSAs ensures that successful evaluation of project alternatives is undertaken in project development, increasing the effectiveness of chosen countermeasures. Figure 16 depicts the incorporation of the RSA into thiết kế in Massachusetts.

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Figure 16. Incorporating RSA into thiết kế in Massachusetts.

In Massachusetts, RSAs are required lớn be completed prior lớn the submission of the 25 percent-level design plans và Functional design Report for all HSIP projects. In addition khổng lồ using RSAs as a tool for HSIP projects, RSAs are also required for all projects which include any element within the boundary of a 5% các mục location và the same 25 percent-level submission requirement exists.

Headquarters performs design đánh giá of 25 percent-level submissions in project development, determining if the RSA has been properly evaluated và incorporated into the project design. Just as HSIP projects often begin with an RSA, the 25 percent-level RSAs for non-HSIP projects are likewise developed prior to lớn the initial design, although RSAs occasionally may not be conducted until near the kết thúc of the process of preparing the 25 percent-level submission. An RSA consultant handles the trăng tròn percent of cases where the RSAs are not submitted.

The Functional design Report includes the resolution to lớn RSA elements, closing the loop on the RSA process và providing a means of ensuring that the value of RSAs is captured in the kiến thiết process. The Mass
DOT web site includes all RSA reports, divided by District lớn permit for easy access. (17)

Towns may request RSAs and MPOs participate in Mass
DOT RSAs và local-agency-initiated RSAs, bringing local perspectives to lớn projects. In those cases, Mass
DOT funding covers the $5,000 cost of the RSA, eliminating the barrier of cost & facilitating local efforts aimed at addressing traffic cachseo.com issues. In typical project development, however, the cost of the RSA is incorporated into the preliminary design activities and paid for by the facility owner, as appropriate.


NCDOT"s Road cachseo.com Review/Audit (RSA) Program is designed and managed khổng lồ reduce crashes & injuries by generating cachseo.com projects/actions, assist field staff in addressing persistent cachseo.com problem areas, and improve collaboration amongst stakeholders. NCDOT"s RSA Program is managed to lớn be flexible in addressing multiple strategic focus areas. RSAs are conducted to lớn address both rural and urban cachseo.com concerns, but the process has also been used lớn address motorcycle, bicycle, pedestrian, & truck related concerns.


cachseo.com Innovation While not considered an RSA, NCDOT is moving towards requiring a cachseo.com analysis for all Traffic Impact Studies for improvements on the highway system.


Local stakeholders can request RSAs. All RSAs are intended lớn result in a variety of actions và projects that lead to lớn a reduction in fatalities, injuries, & crashes. Local agencies can bring these RSA requests forward for both State-maintained & non-State maintained roadways & NCDOT will assist in either case. NCDOT funds approximately 15 RSAs on an annual basis. Not only does NCDOT conduct RSAs on corridors with multiple HSIP locations, they also query the Field Engineers and Field Division staff for locations where RSAs could lead lớn potential HSIP projects. NCDOT staff và consultants conduct the RSAs, with staff from the TSSS in the Central Office leading the phân tích và đo lường team. Typically, the Central Office expends 160 hours per RSA and Central Office-led RSA teams include representatives from other Regions within NCDOT. These representatives include maintenance and operations personnel who bring the perspective of other Regions lớn the RSA process và ensure practice-sharing và consistency throughout North Carolina.


In North Carolina, Central Office-led RSA teams include maintenance và operations personnel from other Regions, bringing multiple Regional perspectives khổng lồ the audit & ensuring practice sharing và consistency throughout the State.


NCDOT requires that local agencies provide a response to the RSA documents within 90 days, addressing how the agency will respond lớn the issues identified in the RSA. For NCDOT"s own RSAs, the RTE prepares a response for the Region on handling the specific issues identified.

NHDOT established an RSA process to assist the local planning agencies và municipal governments in their efforts lớn identify and address road cachseo.com issues, aiding responsiveness to lớn inquiries regarding cachseo.com issues in a community or along a roadway segment. Figure 17 depicts the RSA process. The program was originally conducted entirely with NHDOT staff, but now a consultant is responsible for execution of the program. The municipal or town government coordinates with the Regional Planning Commission lớn complete the RSA application, which is required for each locally-sourced RSA request. This coordination enables the gathering of crash data & other information, followed by submission of the application lớn the Highway cachseo.com Engineer.


New Hampshire"s RSA process defines responsibilities & outcomes. It is a useful tool for identifying the potential scope of cachseo.com improvements and it can serve as a pre-screening for HSIP projects on local facilities, particularly those that are not highly-ranked in the network screening process.


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Figure 17. NHDOT RSA process.

Because the NHDOT RSA process defines responsibility & outcomes, it is a useful tool for identifying the potential scope of cachseo.com improvements and it can serve as a pre-screening for HSIP projects on local facilities, particularly those that are not highly-ranked in the network screening process. The District Engineers participate in the RSA process, in addition to Central Office, regional planning, and local agency staff, providing valuable input from the perspective of maintenance operations. The RSA costs roughly $10,000 and provides documentation of potential cachseo.com hazards và defines the responsibility for correcting those, a key driver in generating HSIP projects.

The New Hampshire RSA requests are screened on the basis of crash performance, which is developed using crash data typically obtained from the local police agency so that crash report details are available. RSA applications are accepted at any time và screened annually, & projects advanced khổng lồ the HSIP candidate danh sách are evaluated with all other RSAs sourced from throughout New Hampshire. NHDOT is considering moving toward an annual solicitation of RSA applications.

IDOT policy requires HSIP projects over $1 million to procure for thiết kế documentation an independently-conducted Road cachseo.com Audit/Assessment (RSA) or internal Road cachseo.com Review. IDOT staff conducts approximately 12 RSAs annually and IDOT has made use of T2 funding for travel for law enforcement officials for RSAs. In addition, the Mc
Henry County Department of Transportation (MCDOT) performs its own RSAs after observing how IDOT used the process lớn identify cachseo.com countermeasures and facilitate local involvement. MCDOT makes use of consultant services in the preparation of RSAs for high-crash intersections, a practice that delivers insights for HSIP projects.


IDOT requires all HSIP projects over $1 million to lớn have an RSA. One county in Illinois now performs its own RSAs after observing how IDOT"s process helped identify cachseo.com countermeasures & facilitate local involvement.


cachseo.com Corridors

Alaska established the four Alaska Traffic cachseo.com Corridors (ATSC), based on the presence of high-crash locations & approved by the commissioners of Transportation & Public cachseo.com. The Bureau of Highway Patrol, part of the Department of Public cachseo.com"s Alaska State Troopers, provides enhanced enforcement in ATSCs. The program is loosely modeled after Oregon & Ohio cachseo.com corridor programs. Corridor implementation was coupled with a public information campaign, including commissioners explaining the Report Every Dangerous Driver Immediately (REDDI) program.(18) HSIP funds are used within the limits of ATSCs. This has been one of the more effective ways of addressing the ATSC issues in a timely manner. Because HSIP projects are smaller and more focused, HSIP funds can be used to lớn implement relatively lower-cost improvements sooner than a typical infrastructure solution, which allows a greater degree of flexibility in the corridors where project implementation is often part of a broader & swiftly-deployed strategy to giảm giá with a particular cachseo.com issue

Fatal và injury crashes on the ATSCs were reduced by 42 percent overall, over a 5-year period. The DOT&PF AHSO website site includes the reports related to lớn the ATSC program. (19)

In Alaska, the TSCs are not decommissioned when a crash reduction is observed, unless the DOT&PF và the police agency with jurisdiction agree the ATSC is no longer effective or conditions have changed in a way that make it unnecessary. It is believed that ATSC presence, characterized by implementation of appropriate measures (including education, enforcement & engineering) has a beneficial effect on cachseo.com and compliance with traffic laws when the public conversation is fed by interagency cooperation & consistent messaging. Alaska"s initial experience with the ATSCs was seen as a paradigm shift from addressing total crashes to lớn focusing on the high benefits of successfully curtailing Fatal và Injury-A crashes.

Enforcement and Emergency Response

Utah"s bi-annual cachseo.com Summit attracts over 500 practitioners from throughout Utah to collaborate & advance transportation cachseo.com in Utah. The participants represent a truly multi-disciplinary coalition, including engineering, public cachseo.com, & public health. The Summit is jointly funded by the DPS và UDOT, with DPS using a variety of funds và UDOT using HSIP funds exclusively.

In addition, UDOT"s partnerships with local và regional emergency services providers và cooperation with local agencies facilitated the implementation of Emergency Medical Services traffic signal pre-emption in a majority of corridors, particularly along the Wasatch Front. Other efforts related to lớn incident management and responsiveness include providing the Utah Highway Patrol with drones and advanced surveying equipment khổng lồ assist in crash clearance efforts.

Summary

The Host States undertake a variety of efforts related khổng lồ the 4E"s khổng lồ improve cachseo.com in their States. This includes conducting public information campaigns & public involvement, conducting RSAs, identifying cachseo.com corridors, và coordinating with law enforcement và emergency responders.

In many Host States, public information campaigns and public involvement are key features of HSIP implementations. Utah, Alaska, và New Hampshire make extensive use of public information campaigns related to lớn highway cachseo.com, with both Utah & New Hampshire strongly emphasizing a zero deaths initiative as the core of the public information campaign. Utah also conducts significant tribal outreach efforts, focusing on data collection on tribal land và helping tribes plan for traffic cachseo.com outcomes with a focus on child passenger cachseo.com and teen driving. In Massachusetts, innovative partnerships with advocacy groups have resulted in informed law enforcement agencies improving efforts related khổng lồ enforcement of bicycle và pedestrian laws, for both motor vehicle operators và vulnerable users.

In Oregon, the importance of involving the public in the project development process was explicitly identified as a key to project success. ODOT indicated that the solicitation of public input on project scope and content increases public satisfaction with projects và provides a platform for conveying the importance of highway cachseo.com investments.

Nearly every Host State identified RSAs as a key component of screening, project development, và project design. In North Carolina & Massachusetts, RSAs are conducted at State DOT expense và can be initiated at the request of the local agency.

Massachusetts was the only Host State khổng lồ require the completion of an RSA for all project development activities that included locations on the 5% List, including non-HSIP projects. This use of RSAs, similar lớn the New Hampshire requirement for the completion of an RSA for all HSIP projects, ensures that successful evaluation of project alternatives is undertaken in project development, increasing the effectiveness of chosen countermeasures, particularly in States without a strong HSM emphasis.

The Alaska DOT&PF established four Alaska Traffic cachseo.com Corridors based on the presence of high crash locations. DOT&PF uses education, enforcement, và engineering lớn reduce crashes in the ATSCs. Similarly, Utah uses a multi-disciplinary approach lớn cachseo.com through partnerships with public cachseo.com providers, public health providers, and tribal communities. The Utah Department of Public cachseo.com uses HSIP funds for enforcement programs related to seat belt use, exceeding the posted speed limit, & aggressive driving.