The Cause and Consequence of Human Trafficking: Human Rights Violations

On the surface, it is quite apparent that human trafficking or modern day slavery is awful, disgusting, violent, targeted towards the most vulnerable populations in society, and illegal. What’s missing from many conversations on human trafficking, however, are the many human rights that are violated in the name of human trafficking. This book, “The Cause & Consequence of Human Trafficking: Human Rights Violations” centers this important issue. Kara Napolitano, of the Laboratory lớn Combat Human Trafficking, once used the phrase, “The Cause and Consequence of Human Trafficking: Human Rights Violations” in an interview on the systemic forces under-girding human trafficking. It eloquently captures the essence & realities of human trafficking và that is how the authors came about in entitling this book. When a person’s human rights are violated, it makes them vulnerable lớn gross mistreatment. When this mistreatment rises to the level of human trafficking, then additional human rights are violated during the trafficking ordeal. It looks lượt thích this in reality…


A well-known African Proverb asserts that “It takes a village lớn raise a child!” The authors completely agree with this observation. In step with this wisdom, the authors would argue that “It takes a world khổng lồ eradicate slavery!” Slavery is around today and it has been around for centuries. Despite its persistence, it does not make it right. All humans deserve khổng lồ live freely. The United Nations (UN) issued the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in 1948. The UN did this in an attempt to bring attention lớn the inalienable rights of all people (United Nations, 1948). The UDHR contains 30 articles. These articles address civil, political, economic, social, và cultural rights (United Nations, 1948, Articles 1-30). The UDHR states that all humans are equal in dignity and worth. Articles 2–15 address political and individual freedoms. Articles 16–27 address economic, social, and cultural rights. Articles 28 & 29 address collective rights among và between nations and Article 30 states that no one can take away a person’s human rights (United Nations, 1948). Although Article 30 prescribes that no one’s human rights cannot be arbitrarily violated, it happens on a daily basis. Trafficked persons have their civil, political, economic, social, & cultural rights violated time & time again while under the control of a trafficker. According khổng lồ the Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (2019), frequently violated human rights of trafficked persons include:

Article 1: The right lớn be free.

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Article 2: The prohibition of discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status

Article 3: The right to life, liberty and security of person

Article 4: The right not to be subjected to slavery or servitude

Article 5: The right not to be subjected to torture and/or cruel, inhumane, degrading treatment or punishment

Article 8: The right to an effective remedy

Article 13: The right khổng lồ freedom of movement

Article 14: The right to seek asylum

Article 17: The right to lớn freedom of association

Article 23: The right khổng lồ just và favorable conditions of work

Article 24: The right khổng lồ rest and leisure

Article 25: The right khổng lồ an adequate standard of living và social security

Article 26: The right khổng lồ an education

As demonstrated in the above UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights Articles, many of these human rights are often denied to: impoverished women, men and children all over the world; people of color as a whole; many people in developing countries; immigrants/migrants/asylum seekers; & people where corrupt governments rule even when the person is not trafficked. By virtue of membership in one or more of these groups, some people’s human rights are routinely violated as a part of life. For instance, due lớn an inability khổng lồ find employment & earn a livable wage

, for instance, some of these individuals will become desperate & especially vulnerable khổng lồ being manipulated, deceived, coerced or forced into a trafficked situation under the guise of pursuing legitimate employment. Desperation leads to lớn extreme vulnerability và high risk for gross mistreatment—including being trafficked. As if human rights violations are not bad enough prior to a trafficking situation, it actually gets worse for virtually all trafficked persons. Once under the control of a trafficker, the person will be further subjected to lớn human rights violations that may escalate to lớn gendered violence (sex trafficking/sexual assault), lack of access to healthcare as needed, restricted movement, poor housing/living conditions, persistent threats khổng lồ one’s life, lack of protection/process when arrested, nonpayment of wages, và inhumane treatment as a whole—to start. It could also lead to lớn death. The violations vary và often present in tandem with one another for a trafficked person. Human rights violations are the most egregious offences committed BY humans TOWARD humans.

Human rights are inalienable and fundamental rights that must be afforded khổng lồ all people. They are legal, ethical & social in principle & must be embedded in the infrastructure of each nation in the form of policies, practices và legislation (Enrile, 2018). Therefore, in this chapter, it is important to lớn reiterate that understanding human rights as broken down in Chapter 1: Social Work, Social Justice, Human Rights and Human Trafficking is critical. This is an imperative. Anyone wanting to understand human trafficking must understand human rights và how the violation of human rights is a cause và consequence of human trafficking.

In an effort khổng lồ provide you with a context for how scholar activists, varied governments, governmental organizations và non-governmental agencies (NGOs) are fighting trafficking, the authors have compiled a list of individuals & organizations that have taken on this work. The nội dung shows you how researchers và organizations play integral roles in addressing it, supporting victims, và creating legislation to lớn criminalize perpetrators. This chapter highlights the work of a limited number of scholars from multiple disciplines who engage in anti-trafficking scholarship. It also highlights several organizations that engage in these activities.

Scholarship on Human Trafficking

The following article abstracts give the reader a sense of the breadth of scholars in the anti-trafficking arena. Due to lớn the complexity of human trafficking, it requires scholars from the arts và entertainment, criminal justice, dentistry, dietetics, informatics, law, law enforcement, truyền thông & technology, medicine, migration, nursing, political science, public affairs, public health, social work, and so many other disciplines lớn address the issue. Here, just some of these disciplines are represented by a select group of scholars.

Criminal Justice

Dandurand, Y. (2017). Human trafficking & police governance. Police Practice & Research, 18(3), 322-336. DOI: 10.1080/15614263.2017.1291599

Human trafficking in its various forms continues khổng lồ offer significant challenges for law enforcement agencies. There is a growing toàn thân of research that addresses some of the police governance and management issues associated with the prevention and control of human trafficking and the protection of victims of this type of crime. This article reviews the literature on the implementation of effective detection, investigation, prosecution, và victim protection strategies; the need for more effective international cooperation; and, the struggle lớn keep up with the illusive criminal organizations và networks that often defy law enforcement tactics. It also considers some of the specific challenges that result from the frequent conflation of human trafficking enforcement with immigration control strategies. It offers a few suggestions on how these issues may be addressed from a police governance standpoint và concludes with a hotline for better data on human trafficking & the relative effectiveness of different law enforcement strategies.

Farrell, A., Bouche, V., và Wolfe, D. (2019). Assessing the impact of state human trafficking legislation on criminal justice system outcomes. Law & Policy, 41(2), 174-197. DOI: 10.1111/lapo.12124

Since 2003, state legislatures in the United States have been active in passing legislation aimed at combating human trafficking. Khổng lồ date, all states have passed laws that criminalize acts of human trafficking, though with significant variation in the penalty structure and associated legal provisions. This article examines what aspects of state human trafficking laws are most impactful at increasing the arrest và prosecution of human trafficking suspects. Using panel data on state laws và associated enforcement actions from 2003 lớn 2012, this study confirms that more comprehensive state laws that invest in anti-trafficking resources are most strongly associated with human trafficking arrests and prosecutions. States that make legislative provisions for victim assistance, law enforcement training, statutory task forces, & mandatory reporting have higher anti-trafficking criminal enforcement. The political environment in which state human trafficking laws are enacted also influences their enforcement.

Farrell, A. Và Cronin, S. (2015). Policing prostitution in an era of human trafficking enforcement. Crime, Law, & Social Change, 64(4/5), 211-228. DOI: 10.1007/s10611-015-9588-0

Prostitution & commercialized vice have been variously prioritized as urban crime problems across U.S. History. In response, lawmakers have historically been guided by a prohibititionst view where people selling, buying or facilitating the sale of sex are considered lớn be immoral & criminal. In recent years, public concern about the trafficking of persons for sex has reframed prostitution & the expectations of government response. The U.S. Federal government & all fifty states have passed legislation that is guided by an abolitionist view of prostitution where people who are forced or coerced lớn sell sex are redefined as victims. State, county và municipal police officers are now receiving training on how to lớn identify human trafficking cases & investigators are being trained khổng lồ investigate and prepare cases for prosecution. Despite these efforts under the new legal regime, confusion exists about how sex trafficking differs from prostitution and correspondingly necessitates different types of law enforcement responses. Adding khổng lồ this complication is the fact that in many major cities the responsibility for identifying & eradicating human trafficking has fallen to the same group of investigators who are responsible for enforcing vice and prostitution laws. As a result, prostitution enforcement is expected to lớn change as police increasingly focus on identifying sex trafficking victims. Using data on police arrests for prostitution from 1980 khổng lồ 2012, we examine the impact of federal và state anti-trafficking legislation on the local enforcement of prostitution. Our findings inform debate about legal reform as a response to urban crime problems & illustrate the complexities of policy implementation & interpretation.

Kulig, T. & Butler, L. (2019). From “whores” khổng lồ “victims”: The rise và status of sex trafficking courts. Victims và Offenders, 14(3), 299-321. DOI: 10.1080/15564886.2019.1595242

Views of people involved in the commercial sex trade have shifted. Once seen as prostitutes or “whores,” they are increasingly perceived as exploited “victims.” The behavior associated with commercial sex has been redefined from voluntary và disreputable to lớn coerced & deserving of rescue. This new framework is part of a broader anti-trafficking movement in society to lớn recognize and save vulnerable individuals who are exploited for sex. In this context, the mã sản phẩm of problem-solving or specialty courts has been extended khổng lồ sex trafficking cases. The goal first is khổng lồ identify trafficking victims–also known as “victim-defendants”–and then to lớn address their risk factors with services. The current reviews examines the prevalence và the effectiveness of sex trafficking courts. Although some promising evaluations have been conducted, it remains unclear whether such courts are addressing the chất lượng needs of victim-defendants. Investigating this question is essential, given that trafficking courts are likely lớn grow in popularity và in number.

Van Der Watt, M. & Van Der Westhuizen, A. (2017). (Re)configuring the criminal justice response to lớn human trafficking: A complex-systems perspective. Police Practice & Research, 18(3), 218-229. DOI: 10.1080/15614263.2017.1291560

The multidimensional complexities associated with the criminal justice response khổng lồ human trafficking are well documented. The transient and subversive nature of human trafficking as organised crime & the large number of multidisciplinary role-players involved in coordinating cross jurisdictional efforts to lớn prevent, investigate & prosecute such cases, contribute lớn this complex undertaking. Complex systems theory suggests that a complex social problem such as human trafficking cannot be approached by using a linear or simplified lens, & requires a holistic perspective on the complex interactions between actors, and emergent behaviour in both the criminal justice system và the human trafficking system that it seeks to combat. This paper explores the characteristics of complexity, & uses illustrations from the lived experiences of actors in South Africa’s efforts lớn combat human trafficking, in order lớn demonstrate how complex systems theory could be considered & integrated into the criminal justice response lớn human trafficking.

Villacampa, C. Và Torres, N. (2017). Human trafficking for criminal exploitation: The failure khổng lồ identifying victims. European Journal on Criminal Policy và Research, 23(3), 393-408. DOI: 10.1007/s10610-017-9343-4

Human trafficking for criminal exploitation is one of the lesser-known forms of human trafficking. The failure of the criminal justice system khổng lồ identify the victims of this type of trafficking can lead lớn a failure khổng lồ take the victim-centered approach to trafficking espoused in the international legal instruments that regulate the matter, an approach that emphasizes the protection of victims và respect for their rights. In light of earlier findings of the existence of unidentified victims of human trafficking for criminal exploitation in several European countries – the UK, Ireland, Spain, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands – a qualitative study was conducted, consisting of 37 in-depth interviews with practicing criminal justice professionals & victim service providers in Spain. Because undetected victims of human trafficking for criminal exploitation are usually treated as offenders, the main aim of this research with professionals was to determine the causes of the criminal justice system’s failure to identify the victims of this specific form of trafficking in order to lớn prevent them from remaining hidden victims.

Ward, T. Và Fouladvand, S. (2018). Human trafficking, victims’ rights, & fair trials. Journal of Criminal Law, 82(2), 138-155. DOI: 10.1177/0022018318761680

Cases of human trafficking are known lớn be difficult to lớn prosecute. In this article we identify several issues in the law of evidence that may contribute lớn these difficulties. We argue for the victims’ rights as an important factor in evidential decisions, coupled with an insistence that such rights cannot trump the defendant’s right khổng lồ a fair trial. Restrictions on evidence of a witness’s bad character or sexual history should not be interpreted in such a way as to prevent the defence from introducing evidence, or asking questions, that are of substantial probative value, even if they are potentially distressing khổng lồ witnesses; but such evidence and questioning should be limited khổng lồ what is necessary for a fair trial. The protection of victims and witnesses may also justify a relatively flexible approach khổng lồ the admission of hearsay evidence, which avoids prejudging the truth of a witness’s evidence in order lớn establish that s/he is in fear.


Bajaj, M. (2011). Human rights education: Ideology, location, & approaches. Human Rights Quarterly, 33(2), 481-508. Retrieved from

As human rights education (HRE) becomes a more common feature of international policy discussions, national textbook reform, và post-conflict educational strategies, greater clarity about what HRE is, does, & means is needed. This article reviews existing definitions và models of HRE, & argues that ideology—as much as location or other variables—offers a means of schematizing varying approaches to HRE. This article reviews models organized around principles of global citizenship, coexistence, and transformative action in the context of one nation-state (India), and suggests that the mutability và adaptability of human rights education are its strength.

A growing toàn thân of interdisciplinary research examines the dynamics of, policies concerning, và implications of large-scale contemporary displacement in the United States. Yet less of this research explores the intersections of policies concerned with & normative understandings of displacement as both relate to U.S. Schooling. This article discusses distinctive features of global displacement also highlighting concerns about student experience within the current political climate. It then synthesizes key U.S. Policies and interdisciplinary literature that address aspects of displacement, including immigration, human trafficking, & asylum. In doing so, it illuminates how laws designed lớn protect vulnerable youth populations often conflict with the goals and normative politics of immigration enforcement. It concludes with implications for educational policy research & practice within U.S. Schools serving high percentages of displaced populations.

Lewis, M., Rappe, P., và King, D. (2018). Development & promotion of student advocacy skills within a human trafficking course. Social Development Issues, 40(2), 24-35. Retrieved from

Human trafficking is a complex, highly profitable, & increasingly widespread social problem impacting countries across the globe. This article will provide an overview of international & national human trafficking and highlight the development and implementation of high-impact advocacy skills using course content to enhance student learning. Assignment examples related lớn community engagement & student advocacy activities will also be described. This article seeks khổng lồ inspire educators lớn embrace multifaceted high-impact approaches as a means khổng lồ educate & promote the development of student advocacy skills, preparing students to speak up and educate others on contemporary social problems impacting human rights.

Mihr, A. & Schmitz, H. P. (2007). Human rights education (HRE) và transnational activism. Human Rights Quarterly, 29(4), 973-993. Retrieved from

Transnational human rights activism occupies today a significant place in the practice và scholarship of current global affairs. This article đánh giá the past successes & limits of this activism and suggests Human Rights Education (HRE) as a strategic tool currently underutilized by activists & rarely taken seriously by academics. We argue that the current practice of transnational human rights activism frequently lacks solid và reciprocal ties to local activists & emphasizes “shaming” và exposure of human rights abuses over their prevention. The professionalization and campaign driven character of rights activism often increases the distance between transnational activists & local causes & beneficiaries và disconnects the general public from human rights struggles. While claims of impartial activism based on legalistic strategies have the benefit of lifting human rights groups above the fray of politics, the promotion of human rights norms remains a deeply political và contentious struggle. We argue that a greater emphasis on HRE strengthens transnational ties và local support for international human rights standards và leads lớn societal mobilization beyond the narrow nongovernmental sector.

Preble, K., Cook, M., & Fults, B. (2019). Sex trafficking and the role of institutions of higher education: Recommendations for response and preparedness. Innovative Higher Education, 44(1), 5-19. DOI: 10.1007/s10755-018-9443-1

In the perceptions of most persons, sex trafficking is a recognized global human rights abuse. The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services has articulated a call to kích hoạt with its four “P” policy agenda: prevent, protect, prosecute, and partnership (Office of Trafficking in Persons, 2017). Institutions of higher education are positioned to bolster these initiatives through research, work force and policy development, và education. It is our purpose with this article khổng lồ begin a discussion within academic institutions and the field of sex trafficking lớn explore what actions might assist survivors who wish lớn pursue higher education as well as what protections should be in place to serve students who may become victimized while attending an institution of higher education. We consider human trafficking, the role of institutions of higher education, current policies related to lớn colleges & universities, the vulnerability of college age individuals khổng lồ potential trafficking, and the unique needs of those who exit trafficking and enter higher education. We offer some recommendations that will enable institutions lớn engage with và address the intersection of sex trafficking and higher education.

Suarez, D. (2007). Education professionals & the construction of human rights education. Comparative Education Review, 51(1), 48-70. DOI: 10.1086/508638

This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model— human rights education. The first section provides a brief history of human rights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of processes in global diffusion and variation at national or local levels. Closely related, the third section discusses linkages và relational & associational processes that spread ideas and construct new models such as human rights education. The fourth section focuses on the current state of human rights education, exploring the creation of an epistemic community of human rights educators & the theorization (Strang và Meyer 1993) of human rights education within the community. Specifically, the section analyzes discussions among members of the epistemic community about why khổng lồ teach human rights education, how khổng lồ teach human rights education, & how khổng lồ assess the reform. Discussions among education professionals help lớn demonstrate the active debates about the nội dung of human rights education & clarify how education professionals integrate the human rights movement into part of the education process. In addition, the interactions among education professionals highlight the intermediate step between global diffusion and local adaptations or responses. Education professionals translate global models of human rights education into local contexts, but professionals also help lớn build and refine the content of human rights education.

The tác giả presents three approaches to contemporary human rights education practice: the Values and Awareness Model, the Accountability model and the Transformational Model. Each mã sản phẩm is associated with particular target groups, contents & strategies. The author suggests that these models can lend themselves to theory development và research in what might be considered an emerging educational field. Human rights education can be further strengthened through the appropriate use of learning theory, as well as through the setting of standards for trainer preparation và program content, & through evaluating the impact of programs in terms of reaching learner goals (knowledge, values and skills) và contributing khổng lồ social change.

Watson, S., Loizzo, J., Watson, W., Mueller, C., Lim, J., và Ertmer, phường (2016). Instructional design, facilitation, and perceived learning outcomes: An exploratory case study of a human trafficking MOOC for attitudinal change. Educational technology Research & Development, 64(6), 1273-1300. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-016-9457-2

This exploratory case study describes the design & facilitation of a massive xuất hiện online course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. It examines the course from the learners’, instructor’s, and instructional designer’s perspectives. Two interviews with the instructor và instructional designer were conducted, & data from a sample of learners via an end-of-course survey (n = 54) & follow-up questionnaire (n = 319) were gathered. Learners’ discussion posts và sample assignments were also reviewed. Findings show that the instructor & instructional designer perceived the design & facilitation of the MOOC as highly complex and challenging. Learner feedback was contradictory, possibly due khổng lồ different expectations and needs within the MOOC. Six instructional kiến thiết considerations for MOOCs in general and for attitudinal change are discussed, including: (a) MOOCs as a quality platform for attitudinal change, (b) the support needed from platform providers and universities, (c) personal và flexible learning paths, (d) instructional activities for attitudinal dissonance, (e) creating a collaborative community, & (f) MOOC instructor preparation.


Beale, S. (2018). The Trafficking Victims Protection Act: The best hope for international human rights litigation in the U.S. Courts?. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 50(1/2), 17-47. Retrieved from

The article focuses on use of the Alien Tort Statute as a vehicle for litigating human rights abuses in both civil và criminal prosecutions in the U.S. Topics discussed include developments in International Criminal Law in addressing human rights violations; judicial attitudes that could affect the interpretation of the Trafficking Victim Protection Act; & Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain court case.

Clawson, H., Dutch, N., Lopez, S., & Tiapula, S. (2008). Prosecuting Human Trafficking Cases: Lessons Learned & Promising Practices. (Executive Summary). National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from

In an effort khổng lồ increase the understanding of prosecutors’ ability lớn use the tools available to prosecute & convict traffickers while balancing the needs of trafficked persons, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) awarded a grant in the fall of 2006. NIJ awarded, ICF International (formerly known as Caliber Associates, an ICF Consulting Company) & subcontractor the American Prosecutors Research Institute (APRI), a grant khổng lồ design a study that examined the effects of existing federal & State legislation from the perspective of the prosecution và identified critical challenges and barriers to lớn successful prosecution of cases.

Rienzo, C. (2018). Compliance with anti-human trafficking policies: The mediating effect of corruption. Crime, Law, và Social Change, 70(5), 525-541. DOI: 10.1007/s10611-018-9780-0

Human Trafficking is an atrocious crime that represents a gross assault on human rights and the United Nations states that it is among the fast growing types of criminal activity. Recognizing the need for counteractive measures, in 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress và Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (Protocol). Using measures of country compliance with the Protocol, past research offers empirical evidence that corruption is a primary deterrent to lớn compliance. Further, previous field studies and surveys suggest that a greater nội dung of women in government should positively contribute khổng lồ country compliance; however, this result is largely not borne out in empirical studies. It is hypothesized that the effect of the mô tả of women in government on compliance is fully mediated by corruption, indicating that there is an indirect effect of women in government on compliance, rather than a direct effect. This hypothesis is empirically tested using a mediation mã sản phẩm and the results indicate that the indirect effect is statistically significant. The empirical results presented suggest that a greater percentage of women in government reduces country corruption, which in turn increases country compliance with the Protocol. The policy implications of these findings are discussed and include suggestions lớn enhance female participation in government.

Fouladvand, S. & Ward, T. (2019). Human trafficking, vulnerability, và the state. Journal of Criminal Law, 83(1), 39-54. DOI: 10.1177/0022018318814373

This article looks at human trafficking from a perspective influenced by the ‘vulnerability theory’ developed by Martha Fineman and her associates. It draws particularly on empirical studies of human trafficking from Albania to the UK and elsewhere. It suggests that Fineman’s approach needs to be modified lớn see the state not only as ameliorating vulnerability, or failing to vị so, but as actively creating và using vulnerability to lớn control or exploit its population. The fact that people are placed, for political, social và economic reasons, in situations of heightened vulnerability does not of itself deprive them of agency or responsibility. People should, however, be understood as ‘vulnerable subjects’ whose ccachseo.comcity for autonomy may be lost when they are deprived of supportive social relationships. The implications of this view for the criminal responsibility of trafficking victims are explored.

Johnson Jr., C., Beraldi, F., Broecker, E., Brown, E., và Maslow, S. (2019). The business case for lawyers to advocate for corporate supply chains không tính phí of labor trafficking và child labor. American University Law Review, 68(5), 1555-1619. Retrieved from

This Article considers the legal và ethical obligations that should propel lawyers lớn advocate for a corporate supply chain miễn phí of labor trafficking & child labor–both of which this piece will expose as an extension of the workforce of many corporations. By embracing the business case supported in the Carrol Corporate Social Responsibility Model, this Article continues to lớn champion the Corporate Social Responsibility Model’s economic groundings. Why lawyers? Because lawyers are the guardians of the rule of law, and both human trafficking and child labor are gaps in the rule of law that taint a client’s supply chain & its goods. Despite many excellent laws in this area, the lack of enforcement contributes to lớn this gap in the rule of law. As such, this Article illustrates why lawyers need lớn be on the vanguard of eradicating human trafficking & child labor in supply chains. It does so by describing, as noted by Professor David Snyder in The New Social Contracts for International Supply Chains, a mix of mã sản phẩm Clauses designed lớn incorporate human rights protections in supply contracts developed by the ABA Business Law Section Working Group to Draft Human Rights Protections in International Supply Contracts. This Article also discusses why other ethical business case rationales such as the rule of law, moral, và legal ethics considerations likewise support the legal profession taking the lead on eradicating labor trafficking & child labor. Finally, the issue of diversity is advanced as a new way to think about solutions to this problem.

In this study, we addressed the need for empirical research on human trafficking by compiling quality data relating lớn criminal charges filed in federal judicial districts and using these data lớn examine trends in sex trafficking-related cases, as well as the impact on those trends of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA). Results from our regression models indicate that the proportion of all charges filed by federal prosecutors that involved sex trafficking and related cases increased significantly between 1994 and 2007. The rate of increase, however, slowed in the time period following the passage of the TVPA, suggesting that the TVPA may have helped to mitigate increases in new cases. In addition, our results show statistically significant inverse relationships between immigration and sex trafficking-related charges filed, providing new evidence to tư vấn the possibility that some sex trafficking-related cases may be being prosecuted as immigration cases instead.

Kendis, B. (2019). Human trafficking và prostitution courts: Problem solving or problematic?. Case Western Reserve Law Review, 69(3), 805-841. Retrieved from

The article focuses on laws governing victimization in commercial sex in the U.S. Topics discussed include country’s approach on individuals involved in the sex industry và prostitution; human trafficking và prostitution courts effectiveness in addressing human trafficking & commercial sexual exploitation; & the enactment of Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 for addressing the same.

Planitzer, J. & Katona, N. (2017). Criminal liability of corporations for trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation. Global Policy, 8(4), 505-511. DOI: 10.1111/1758-5899.12510

Legal instruments at the European cấp độ clearly define that States have an obligation khổng lồ establish corporate liability for trafficking in human beings ( THB). The monitoring of the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on kích hoạt against Trafficking in Human Beings shows that, in general, the respective legislation for corporate criminal liability already largely exists in the States’ Parties. However, application of the legislation seems lớn lag behind, since relevant cases were identified in only a few States. By analysing these legal mechanisms with a focus on Austria, studying case law in Belgium and Cyprus, and conducting interviews with stakeholders, the authors identify obstacles for the application of corporate criminal liability in the context of THB. Based on case law, the paper analyses the potential of corporate criminal liability for exploited persons lớn have access lớn compensation và describes challenges in this field. Cases on corporate criminal liability for THB seem to lớn focus on sanctioning the companies và ensuring compensation might be seen as a rather secondary priority.

Small, K., Adams, W., Owens, C., và Roland, K. (2008). An Analysis of Federally Prosecuted Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Cases Since the Passage of the Victims of Trafficking và Violence Protection Act of 2000. (Research Report). Urban Institute. Retrieved from

This study examined the prosecution of the commercial sexual exploitation of children & youth (CSEC) in the United States. The research took the size of a national analysis of federal prosecutions since the passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000, answering the following research questions: (1) Is the United States enforcing existing federal laws related khổng lồ CSEC? (2) What are the key features of successfully prosecuted CSEC cases? (3) Have the U.S. Courts increased penalties associated with sexual crimes against children? (4) What are the effects of CSEC legislation on service providers who work with victims? This assessment provides policy makers with a means of assessing the effects of legislation aimed at combating CSEC.

Medical & Nursing

Dovydaitis, T. (2010). Human trafficking: The role of the healthcare provider. Journal of Midwifery và Women’s Health, 55(5), 462-467. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.12.017

Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically & internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to lớn interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to lớn identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is khổng lồ provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking và give specific tools that they may use khổng lồ assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, & common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study & clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed.

Fraley, H. & Aronowitz, T. (2019). Systematic review of human trafficking educational interventions for healthcare providers. Western Journal of Nursing Research. DOI: 10.1177/0193945919837366

Human trafficking is a global population health threat. Trafficking minors threatens the safety and well-being of youth. Limited studies measure health care providers’ awareness and attitudes toward trafficking. This systematic reviews synthesized retrospective and current knowledge and identified gaps in educational interventions aimed at increasing providers’ awareness and attitudes toward trafficking. A systematic tìm kiếm of four databases identified peer-reviewed published papers between January 1, 2000 & September 1, 2018. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review was followed. Study chất lượng was assessed using the Downs và Black checklist. The Psychometric Grading Framework was used khổng lồ assess the validity of instruments. Findings across studies (N = 7) reveal providers (mostly social workers & physicians) have low awareness of trafficking và can have negative attitudes toward victims. Multiphase educational approaches & use of nội dung experts, including survivors, in developing interventions enhanced sustainability of outcomes. Targeting multidisciplinary health care teams, including nurses, enhanced interventions.

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Hansen, S., Melzer-Lange, M., Nugent, M., Yan, K., & Rabbitt, A. (2018). Development and assessment of an online training for the medical response of sex trafficking of minors. Academic Pediatrics, 18(8), 965-968. DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2018.07.009

The article presents a study which examines the use of an online training for medical professionals lớn improve their trauma-informed responses to lớn sex trafficking (ST) of minors. The study used electronic learning development software & Fisher’s exact thử nghiệm to assess the technology. Results show that the innovative online training helps improve confidence, awareness & knowledge on the provision of medical response lớn ST victims.

Judge, A., Murphy, J., Hidalgo, J., & Macias-Konstantopoulos, W. (2018). Engaging survivors or human trafficking: Complex health care needs & scarce resources. Annals of Internal Medicine, 168(9), 658-663. DOI: 10.7326/M17-2605

Human trafficking, also known as modern-day slavery, is an egregious human rights violation associated with wide-ranging medical và mental health consequences. Because of the extensive health problems related to trafficking, health care providers play a critical role in identifying survivors and engaging them in ongoing care. Although guidelines for recognizing affected patients & a framework for developing response protocols in health care settings have been described, survivors’ ongoing engagement in health care services is very challenging. High rates of disengagement, lost contact, premature termination, & attrition are common outcomes. For interventions lớn be effective in this marginalized population, challenges in engaging survivors in long-term therapeutic primary & mental health care must be better understood & overcome. This article uses the socioecological model of public health to lớn identify barriers to engagement; offers evidence- và practice-based recommendations for overcoming these barriers; and proposes an interdisciplinary call to kích hoạt for developing more flexible, adaptable models of care.

Macias-Konstantopoulos, W. (2016). Human trafficking: The role of medicine in interrupting the cycle of abuse & violence. Annals of Internal Medicine, 165(8), 582-588. DOI: 10.7326/M16-0094

Human trafficking, a size of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor và sexual exploitation of both U.S. & non-U.S. Citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused và disenfranchised persons in society, và they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation & exploitation. Medicine has an important role khổng lồ play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals & society. Victims are cared for in emergency departments, primary care offices, urgent care centers, community health clinics, & reproductive health clinics. In addition, they are unknowingly being treated in hospital inpatient units. Injuries và illnesses requiring medical attention thus represent unique windows of opportunity for trafficked persons to lớn receive assistance from trusted health care professionals. With education and training, health care providers can recognize signs & symptoms of trafficking, provide trauma-informed care to this vulnerable population, và respond khổng lồ exploited persons who are interested & ready to lớn receive assistance. Multidisciplinary response protocols, research, và policy advocacy can enhance the impact of anti-trafficking health care efforts khổng lồ interrupt the cycle of abuse và violence for these victims.

Macias-Konstantopoulos, W. (2017). Caring for the trafficked patient: Ethical challenges & recommendations for health care professionals. AMA Journal of Ethics, 19(1), 80-90. Retrieved from

Human trafficking is an egregious human rights violation with profound negative physical & psychological consequences, including communicable diseases, substance use disorders, & mental illnesses. The health needs of this population are multiple, complex, and influenced by past and present experiences of abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Effective health care services for trafficked patients require clinicians khổng lồ consider individual patients’ needs, wishes, goals, priorities, risks, & vulnerabilities as well as public health implications và even resource allocation. Applying the bioethical principles of respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, & justice, this article considers the ethics of care mã sản phẩm as a trauma-informed framework for providing health care to lớn human trafficking victims và survivors.


Human trafficking affects a surprisingly large number of adolescents around the globe. Women and girls make up the majority of sex trafficking victims. Nurses must be aware of sex trafficking as a khung of sexual violence in the adolescent population. Nurses can play a role in identifying, intervening, & advocating for victims of human trafficking as they currently vị for patients that are the victims of other types of violent crimes.

Human trafficking, also called modern slavery, happens worldwide-and the United States is no exception. Within our borders, thousands of foreign nationals and U.S. Citizens, many of them children, are forced or coerced into sex work or various forms of labor every year. Nurses & other health care providers who encounter victims of trafficking often don’t realize it, và opportunities to intervene are lost. Although no one sign can demonstrate with certainty when someone is being trafficked, there are several indicators that clinicians should know. This article provides an overview of human trafficking, describes how khổng lồ recognize signs that a person is being trafficked & how khổng lồ safely intervene, and offers an extensive resource list.

Schwarz, C., Unruh, E., Cronin, K., Evans-Simpson, S., Britton, H., và Ramaswamy, M. (2016). Human trafficking identification và service provision in the medical và social service sectors. Health và Human Rights: An International Journal, 18(1), 181-191. Retrieved from

The medical sector presents a chất lượng opportunity for identification and service khổng lồ victims of human trafficking. In this article, we describe local and site-specific efforts lớn develop an intervention tool khổng lồ be used in an urban hospital’s emergency department in the midwestern United States. In the development of our tool, we focused on both identification và intervention to lớn assist trafficked persons, through a largely collaborative process in which we engaged local stakeholders for developing site-specific points of intervention. In the process of developing our intervention, we highlight the importance of using existing resources and services in a specific community to address critical gaps in coverage for trafficked persons. For example, we focus on those who are victims of labor trafficking, in addition khổng lồ those who are victims of sex trafficking. We offer a framework informed by rights-based approaches khổng lồ anti-trafficking efforts that addresses the practical challenges of human trafficking victim identification while simultaneously working to provide resources and disseminate services lớn those victims.

Public Affairs

Bonilla, T. & Mo, C. H. (2019). The evolution of human trafficking messaging in the United States & its effect on public opinion. Journal of Public Policy, 39(2), 201-234. DOI: 10.1017/S0143814X18000107

Despite a near unanimous agreement that human trafficking is a morally reprehensible practice, there is confusion around what qualifies as human trafficking in the United States. Adopting a mixed-method strategy, we examine how human trafficking is defined by the public; how contemporary (mis)understanding of human trafficking developed; & the public opinion consequence of this (mis)understanding. The definition of human trafficking has evolved over time to become nearly synonymous with slavery; however, we demonstrate that truyền thông media and anti-trafficking organisations have been focussing their attention on the sexual exploitation of foreign women. We show that general public opinion reflects this skewed attention; the average citizen equates human trafficking with the smuggling of women for sexual slavery. Using a survey experiment, we find that shining light on other facets of human trafficking – the fact that human trafficking is a security problem và a domestic issue – can increase public response to lớn the issue.

Public Health

Cannon, A., Arcara, J., Graham, L., và Macy, R. (2018). Trafficking & health: A systematic reviews of research methods. Trauma, Violence và Abuse, 19(2), 159-175. DOI: 10.1177/1524838016650187

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP & its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to lớn TIP’s clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, & the need lớn use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, & research khổng lồ assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature reviews of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles khổng lồ (a) identify TIP & health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative & qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used khổng lồ investigate TIP và health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP và health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP & health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative & nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP và health as well as research on risk & protective factors related khổng lồ TIP & health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, và research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results.

Haase, E. (2014). “Human trafficking, public health, and the law”: A comprehensive analysis of intersections. Journal of Public Health, 22, 121-129. DOI: 10.1007/s10389-013-0603-6

Aim. The extraordinary topic of “Human Trafficking, Public Health & the Law” was subject of an interdisciplinary và international Spring School that took place in March 2013 in Italy. The aim of the meeting was a comprehensive examination of the human trafficking issue.

Subject & method. In collaboration with seven expert lecturers, a group of students particularized the issues và claims related to lớn human trafficking và public health from the angles of all relevant disciplines. Past legal decisions were evaluated in order khổng lồ recommend future solutions in the common interest with respect khổng lồ human dignity.

Results. The main outcome of the two weeks of lectures, group work & a field trip are practical approaches và the document: Siena Principles on Human Trafficking và Public Health.

Conclusion. The costs for society that arise due to the adverse effects of human trafficking encompass the degradation of human rights, poor public health, weakened social development, & disturbed communities. Human trafficking therefore is a critical health issue with serious social implications that requires both medical và legal attention.

Macias-Konstantopoulos, W., Ahn, R., Alpert, E., Cafferty, E., Mc
Gahan, A., Williams, T., …, Burke, T. (2013). An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women & girls in eight cities: Achieving a more effective health sector response. Journal of Urban Health, 90(6), 1194-1204. DOI: 10.1007/s11524-013-9837-4

Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread khung of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women và girls, và has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to lớn 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to lớn the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought lớn gain a new perspective on this khung of gender-based violence from those who have a chất lượng vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources & practices in the health system, & barriers khổng lồ care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural và economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women và girls, & lack of income. Although there are numerous physical và psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy & poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to lớn sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to lớn engage in anti-trafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders.

Modi, M., Palmer, S., & Armstrong, A. (2014). The role of the Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: A public health issue. Journal of Women’s Health, 23(3), 253-259. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2013.4387

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 khổng lồ 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, và the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, & attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, và queer (LGBTQ) individuals; và victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America’s immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need lớn be addressed by future legislation. This reviews examines the role of legislation và addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV.

Todres, J. (2012). Assessing public health strategies for advancing child protection: Human trafficking as a case study. Journal of Law & Policy, 21(1), 93-112. Retrieved from

Ensuring the well-being of all children is one of the great challenges of our time. Despite concerted efforts in the United States to lớn protect children, research reveals that millions of children suffer harm each year.’ This symposium, which aimed to explore the potential benefits of public health perspectives on child protection, provided an important opportunity to lớn reexamine children’s experiences & child protection strategies from a different perspective. Typically, when policymakers & child advocates speak of “child protection,” they focus primarily on abuse & neglect in the home. Often, child protection does not contemplate violence against children in the community. The inside/outside-the-home divide is somewhat of a false dichotomy, however, as the two realms are interrelated. Children who suffer abuse and neglect in the trang chủ are frequently at heightened risk of exploitation outside the home. This essay focuses on the community-based issues of trafficking & commercial sexual exploitation of children, with a view lớn elucidating the merits of public health approaches lớn harm against children. Trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children are significant issues in the United States. Although many individuals still think of these problems as occurring elsewhere in the world, these forms of child exploitation occur regularly in the United States, và most experts agree that the number of intra-country trafficking cases exceeds the number of cross-border cases. This essay briefly outlines the current framework for responding khổng lồ child trafficking. It then discusses what a public health approach could add to anti-trafficking efforts. Finally, this essay seeks to draw lessons from a public health approach to child trafficking that might inform child protection strategies more broadly.

Social Work

Dalla, R.L., Erwin, S., và Kreimer, L.M. (2018). Children of Mumbai’s Brothels: Investigating Developmental Prospects, Primary Relationships, và Service Provision. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science, 68, 104-118. Retrieved from

Objective. To understand the context of the lives of children reared in India’s red‐light brothel districts.

Background. Substantial empirical insight has emerged on the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). Yet the extant literature on brothel‐based children (BBC), a uniquely vulnerable subset of at‐risk children, is paradoxically deficient. Understanding the developmental needs of đài truyền hình bbc is critical to mitigating risk.

Method. In‐depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 service providers & 30 women residing in 2 red‐light brothel districts of Mumbai. Phenomenological inquiry informed the research methodology and data analysis.

Results. Mothers’ goals for children included survival, academic success, & future employment. Formal services were critical in meeting the basic needs of BBC, ensuring access khổng lồ developmentally appropriate education, & maintaining safety overnight.

Conclusion. Bbc are at considerable risk for an array of developmental challenges. Multisector service providers must work together và with the mothers of bbc to mitigate intergenerational sexual exploitation in the formal sex economy.

Implications. Results provide key areas for further research including longitudinal assessment of BBCs’ educational và occupational outcomes, as well as incidence of complex trauma among đài truyền hình bbc and treatment options. Service gaps include outreach to lớn older male bbc as well as shame reduction intervention.

Despite increased effort to respond lớn human trafficking at national & state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors và domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry (N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What mix of risk factors, prior khổng lồ entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking & (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex–trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state. Overall, 115 participants (48.3%) were identified as current or former domestic child sex–trafficking victims. Bivariate results suggest that childhood emotional & sexual abuse, rape, ever running away from home, having family members in sex work, & having friends who purchased sex were significantly associated with domestic child sex trafficking. Multivariate results indicate that domestic child sex trafficking victims were significantly more likely lớn have ever run away & to be a racial/ethnic minority than non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry. Findings can inform state-level policies on human trafficking và assist child protection & juvenile justice agencies in developing prevention & intervention responses khổng lồ commercial sexual exploitation.

In this qualitative study, 48 female prostitutes from Mumbai, India were interviewed to lớn understand their experiences related to lớn their entry into prostitution. Respondents’ vulnerabilities & the role of family and acquaintances in entry were researched. The findings of the study indicate that poverty, marital abuse, sexual abuse & the death of a parent or husband were the main reasons for entry into prostitution. The majority of the respondents were sold into prostitution by family members or acquaintances. This research provides recommendations for policy, practice và research in the area of sex trafficking.

Meshelemiah, J.C.A. (2016). Human Rights Perspectives in Social Work Education và Practice. Encyclopedia of Social work: National Association of Social Workers và Oxford University Press.

The social work profession has evolved extensively since its inception in 1898. The profession began with a focus on helping others và recognizing social injustices as its vi xử lý core charges. The profession is now being called to lớn view human rights as its professional responsibility, too. As driving forces behind this new charge, the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) and the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) are taking concrete steps khổng lồ ensure that the human rights perspective is being integrated into social work education và practice.

Books on Human Rights

The following are a select group of books that discuss human rights in great detail from the perspectives of diverse disciplines và dignitaries.

Bhambra, G.K., & Shilliam, R. (Eds.). (2009). Silencing human rights: