Chapter 1. Air Navigation
Chapter 2. Aeronautical Lighting & Other Airport Visual Aids
Chapter 3. Airspace
Chapter 4. Air Traffic Control
Chapter 5. Air Traffic Procedures
Chapter 6. Emergency Procedures
Chapter 7. Safety of Flight
Chapter 8. Medical Facts for Pilots
Chapter 9. Aeronautical Charts and Related Publications
Chapter 10. Helicopter Operations
Chapter 11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)Appendix 1. Bird/Other Wildlife Strike Report
Appendix 2. Volcanic Activity Reporting size (VAR)Appendix 3. Abbreviations/Acronyms
Appendix 4. FAA khung 7233−4 International Flight Plan
Appendix 5. FAA form 7233−1 Flight Plan

AIM by Topic

General Information Air Navigation Aeronautical Lighting & Other Airport Visual sida Airspace Air Traffic Control Air Traffic Procedures Emergency Procedures Safety of Flight Medical Facts for Pilots Aeronautical Charts & Related Publications Helicopter Operations Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

Section 3. Airport Operations

Airports with an Operating Control TowerWhen operating at an airport where traffic control is being exercised by a control tower, pilots are required to maintain two-way radio tương tác with the tower while operating within the Class B, Class C, and Class D surface area unless the tower authorizes otherwise. Initial callup should be made about 15 miles from the airport. Unless there is a good reason lớn leave the tower frequency before exiting the Class B, Class C, & Class D surface areas, it is a good operating practice lớn remain on the tower frequency for the purpose of receiving traffic information. In the interest of reducing tower frequency congestion, pilots are reminded that it is not necessary to lớn request permission lớn leave the tower frequency once outside of Class B, Class C, và Class D surface areas. Not all airports with an operating control tower will have Class D airspace. These airports do not have weather reporting which is a requirement for surface based controlled airspace, previously known as a control zone. The controlled airspace over these airports will normally begin at 700 feet or 1,200 feet above ground level and can be determined from the visual aeronautical charts. Pilots are expected lớn use good operating practices và communicate with the control tower as described in this section.The following terminology for the various components of a traffic pattern has been adopted as standard for use by control towers & pilots (See FIG 4-3-1):Upwind leg. A flight path parallel to the landing runway in the direction of landing.

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Crosswind leg. A flight path at right angles khổng lồ the landing runway off its takeoff end.Downwind leg. A flight path parallel to lớn the landing runway in the opposite direction of landing.Base leg. A flight path at right angles lớn the landing runway off its approach end và extending from the downwind leg to lớn the intersection of the extended runway centerline.Final approach. A flight path in the direction of landing along the extended runway centerline from the base leg khổng lồ the runway.Departure. The flight path which begins after takeoff và continues straight ahead along the extended runway centerline. The departure climb continues until reaching a point at least 1/2 mile beyond the departure end of the runway and within 300 feet of the traffic pattern altitude.Many towers are equipped with a tower radar display. The radar uses are intended to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the local control, or tower, position. They are not intended to lớn provide radar services or benefits khổng lồ pilots except as they may accrue through a more efficient tower operation. The four basic uses are:To determine an aircraft"s exact location. This is accomplished by radar identifying the VFR aircraft through any of the techniques available lớn a radar position, such as having the aircraft squawk ident. Once identified, the aircraft"s position & spatial relationship to other aircraft can be quickly determined, and standard instructions regarding VFR operation in Class B, Class C, và Class D surface areas will be issued. Once initial radar identification of a VFR aircraft has been established & the appropriate instructions have been issued, radar monitoring may be discontinued; the reason being that the local controller"s primary means of surveillance in VFR conditions is visually scanning the airport và local area.To provide radar traffic advisories. Radar traffic advisories may be provided khổng lồ the extent that the local controller is able to lớn monitor the radar display. Local control has primary control responsibilities to the aircraft operating on the runways, which will normally supersede radar monitoring duties.To provide a direction or suggested heading. The local controller may provide pilots flying VFR with generalized instructions which will facilitate operations; e.g., “PROCEED SOUTHWESTBOUND, ENTER A RIGHT DOWNWIND RUNWAY THREE ZERO,” or provide a suggested heading khổng lồ establish radar identification or as an advisory aid lớn navigation; e.g., “SUGGESTED HEADING TWO TWO ZERO, FOR RADAR IDENTIFICATION.” In both cases, the instructions are advisory aids to the pilot flying VFR and are not radar vectors.
NOTE-

Pilots have complete discretion regarding acceptance of the suggested headings or directions and have sole responsibility for seeing and avoiding other aircraft.


To provide information và instructions khổng lồ aircraft operating within Class B, Class C, và Class D surface areas. In an example of this situation, the local controller would use the radar khổng lồ advise a pilot on an extended downwind when to turn base leg.

NOTE-

The above tower radar applications are intended khổng lồ augment the standard functions of the local control position. There is no controller requirement lớn maintain constant radar identification. In fact, such a requirement could compromise the local controller"s ability khổng lồ visually scan the airport và local area to meet FAA responsibilities khổng lồ the aircraft operating on the runways và within the Class B, Class C, và Class D surface areas. Normally, pilots will not be advised of being in radar liên hệ since that continued status cannot be guaranteed and since the purpose of the radar identification is not khổng lồ establish a liên kết for the provision of radar services.


A few of the radar equipped towers are authorized to use the radar khổng lồ ensure separation between aircraft in specific situations, while still others may function as limited radar approach controls. The various radar uses are strictly a function of FAA operational need. The facilities may be indistinguishable to lớn pilots since they are all referred lớn as tower and no publication lists the degree of radar use. Therefore, when in communication with a tower controller who may have radar available, do not assume that constant radar monitoring & complete ATC radar services are being provided.Traffic PatternsIt is recommended that aircraft enter the airport traffic pattern at one of the following altitudes listed below. These altitudes should be maintained unless another traffic pattern altitude is published in the Chart Supplement or unless otherwise required by the applicable distance from cloud criteria (14 CFR Section 91.155). (See FIG 4-3-2 and FIG 4-3-3):Propeller-driven aircraft enter the traffic pattern at 1,000 feet above ground cấp độ (AGL).Large & turbine-powered aircraft enter the traffic pattern at an altitude of not less than 1,500 feet AGL or 500 feet above the established pattern altitude.Helicopters operating in the traffic pattern may fly a pattern similar khổng lồ the fixed-wing aircraft pattern, but at a lower altitude (500 AGL) và closer khổng lồ the runway. This pattern may be on the opposite side of the runway from fixed-wing traffic when airspeed requires or for practice power-off landings (autorotation) và if local policy permits. Landings not khổng lồ the runway must avoid the flow of fixed wing traffic.A pilot may vary the size of the traffic pattern depending on the aircraft"s performance characteristics. Pilots of en route aircraft should be constantly alert for aircraft in traffic patterns & avoid these areas whenever possible.Unless otherwise indicated, all turns in the traffic pattern must be made to lớn the left, except for helicopters, as applicable.On Sectional, Aeronautical, & VFR Terminal Area Charts, right traffic patterns are indicated at public-use và joint-use airports with the abbreviation “RP” (for Right Pattern), followed by the appropriate runway number(s) at the bottom of the airport data block.

NOTE-

Pilots are encouraged khổng lồ use the standard traffic pattern. However, those pilots who choose lớn execute a straight-in approach, maneuvering for and execution of the approach should not disrupt the flow of arriving & departing traffic. Likewise, pilots operating in the traffic pattern should be alert at all times for aircraft executing straight-in approaches.
*RP indicates special conditions exist và refers pilots to the Chart Supplement.Right traffic patterns are not shown at airports with full-time control towers.
Wind conditions affect all airplanes in varying degrees. Figure 4-3-4 is an example of a chart used khổng lồ determine the headwind, crosswind, và tailwind components based on wind direction và velocity relative to the runway. Pilots should refer lớn similar information provided by the aircraft manufacturer when determining these wind components.
*

EXAMPLE-Key to lớn traffic pattern operations

Enter pattern in cấp độ flight, abeam the midpoint of the runway, at pattern altitude.Maintain pattern altitude until abeam approach over of the landing runway on downwind leg.Complete turn khổng lồ final at least 1/4 mile from the runway.Continue straight ahead until beyond departure kết thúc of runway.If remaining in the traffic pattern, commence turn khổng lồ crosswind leg beyond the departure end of the runway within 300 feet of pattern altitude.If departing the traffic pattern, continue straight out, or exit with a 45 degree turn (to the left when in a left-hand traffic pattern; to lớn the right when in a right-hand traffic pattern) beyond the departure end of the runway, after reaching pattern altitude.
*

EXAMPLE-Key khổng lồ traffic pattern operations

Enter pattern in màn chơi flight, abeam the midpoint of the runway, at pattern altitude. Maintain pattern altitude until abeam approach over of the landing runway on downwind leg.Complete turn lớn final at least 1/4 mile from the runway.Continue straight ahead until beyond departure kết thúc of runway.If remaining in the traffic pattern, commence turn lớn crosswind leg beyond the departure kết thúc of the runway within 300 feet of pattern altitude.If departing the traffic pattern, continue straight out, or exit with a 45 degree turn (to the left when in a left-hand traffic pattern; lớn the right when in a right-hand traffic pattern) beyond the departure end of the runway, after reaching pattern altitude.Do not overshoot final or continue on a track which will penetrate the final approach of the parallel runway.Do not continue on a track which will penetrate the departure path of the parallel runway.
*
Visual Indicators at Airports Without an Operating Control TowerThe segmented circle system consists of the following components:The segmented circle. Located in a position affording maximum visibility lớn pilots in the air và on the ground and providing a centralized location for other elements of the system.The wind direction indicator. A wind cone, wind sock, or wind tee installed near the operational runway to lớn indicate wind direction. The large over of the wind cone/wind sock points into the wind as does the large kết thúc (cross bar) of the wind tee. In lieu of a tetrahedron & where a wind sock or wind cone is collocated with a wind tee, the wind tee may be manually aligned with the runway in use to indicate landing direction. These signaling devices may be located in the center of the segmented circle and may be lighted for night use. Pilots are cautioned against using a tetrahedron to indicate wind direction.The landing direction indicator. A tetrahedron is installed when conditions at the airport warrant its use. It may be used khổng lồ indicate the direction of landings & takeoffs. A tetrahedron may be located at the center of a segmented circle và may be lighted for night operations. The small kết thúc of the tetrahedron points in the direction of landing. Pilots are cautioned against using a tetrahedron for any purpose other than as an indicator of landing direction. Further, pilots should use extreme caution when making runway selection by use of a tetrahedron in very light or calm wind conditions as the tetrahedron may not be aligned with the designated calm-wind runway. At airports with control towers, the tetrahedron should only be referenced when the control tower is not in operation. Tower instructions supersede tetrahedron indications.Landing strip indicators. Installed in pairs as shown in the segmented circle diagram & used khổng lồ show the alignment of landing strips.Traffic pattern indicators. Arranged in pairs in conjunction with landing strip indicators và used lớn indicate the direction of turns when there is a variation from the normal left traffic pattern. (If there is no segmented circle installed at the airport, traffic pattern indicators may be installed on or near the end of the runway.)Preparatory to lớn landing at an airport without a control tower, or when the control tower is not in operation, pilots should concern themselves with the indicator for the approach kết thúc of the runway lớn be used. When approaching for landing, all turns must be made to lớn the left unless a traffic pattern indicator indicates that turns should be made to lớn the right. If the pilot will mentally enlarge the indicator for the runway lớn be used, the base and final approach legs of the traffic pattern to be flown immediately become apparent. Similar treatment of the indicator at the departure end of the runway will clearly indicate the direction of turn after takeoff.When two or more aircraft are approaching an airport for the purpose of landing, the pilot of the aircraft at the lower altitude has the right-of-way over the pilot of the aircraft at the higher altitude. However, the pilot operating at the lower altitude should not take advantage of another aircraft, which is on final approach khổng lồ land, by cutting in front of, or overtaking that aircraft.Use of Runways/Declared DistancesRunways are identified by numbers that indicate the nearest 10-degree increment of the azimuth of the runway centerline. For example, where the magnetic azimuth is 183 degrees, the runway designation would be 18; for a magnetic azimuth of 87 degrees, the runway designation would be 9. For a magnetic azimuth ending in the number 5, such as 185, the runway designation could be either 18 or 19. Wind direction issued by the tower is also magnetic và wind velocity is in knots.

NOTE-

At airports with multiple parallel runways whose magnetic azimuths are identical, each runway number will be supplemented by a letter và shown from left to lớn right when viewed from the direction of approach.When multiple parallel runways at the same airport are separated by a large distance, such as by a central terminal or several terminals, the runways may be designated as non-parallel runways to avoid pilot confusion.
Airport proprietors are responsible for taking the lead in local aviation noise control. Accordingly, they may propose specific noise abatement plans khổng lồ the FAA. If approved, these plans are applied in the form of Formal or Informal Runway Use Programs for noise abatement purposes.
ATC will assign the runway/s most nearly aligned with the wind when 5 knots or more, or the “calm wind” runway when less than 5 knots unless:Use of another runway is operationally advantageous, or
A Runway Use Program is in effect.

NOTE-

Tailwind và crosswind considerations take precedence over delay/capacity considerations, & noise abatement operations/procedures.


If a pilot prefers to use a runway different from that specified, the pilot is expected to lớn advise ATC. ATC may honor such requests as soon as is operationally practicable. ATC will advise pilots when the requested runway is noise sensitive. When use of a runway other than the one assigned is requested, pilot cooperation is encouraged to preclude disruption of traffic flows or the creation of conflicting patterns.
Declared Distances.Declared distances for a runway represent the maximum distances available và suitable for meeting takeoff và landing distance performance requirements. These distances are determined in accordance with FAA runway kiến thiết standards by adding lớn the physical length of paved runway any clearway or stopway và subtracting from that sum any lengths necessary to lớn obtain the standard runway safety areas, runway object không tính tiền areas, or runway protection zones. As a result of these additions & subtractions, the declared distances for a runway may be more or less than the physical length of the runway as depicted on aeronautical charts và related publications, or available in electronic navigation databases provided by either the U.S. Government or commercial companies.All 14 CFR Part 139 airports report declared distances for each runway. Other airports may also report declared distances for a runway if necessary to meet runway thiết kế standards or to lớn indicate the presence of a clearway or stopway. Where reported, declared distances for each runway kết thúc are published in the Chart Supplement. For runways without published declared distances, the declared distances may be assumed khổng lồ be equal to lớn the physical length of the runway unless there is a displaced landing threshold, in which case the Landing Distance Available (LDA) is shortened by the amount of the threshold displacement.

NOTE-

A symbol

*
is shown on U.S. Government charts to lớn indicate that runway declared distance information is available (See appropriate Chart Supplement, Chart Supplement Alaska or Pacific).


REFERENCE-

P/CG Term - “ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE,” “LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE,” “TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE,” “TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE,” ” STOPWAY,” và “CLEARWAY.”


The airplane operating rules and/or the airplane operating limitations establish minimum distance requirements for takeoff và landing and are based on performance data supplied in the Airplane Flight Manual or Pilot"s Operating Handbook. The minimum distances required for takeoff và landing obtained either in planning prior to takeoff or in performance assessments conducted at the time of landing must fall within the applicable declared distances before the pilot can accept that runway for takeoff or landing.While some runway elements associated with declared distances may be identifiable through runway markings or lighting (for example, a displaced threshold or a stopway), the individual declared distance limits are not marked or otherwise identified on the runway. An aircraft is not prohibited from operating beyond a declared distance limit during the takeoff, landing, or xe taxi operation provided the runway surface is appropriately marked as usable runway (See FIG 4-3-6). The following examples clarify the intent of this paragraph.

FIG 4-3-5Declared Distances with Full-Standard Runway Safety Areas, Runway Object miễn phí Areas, và Runway Protection Zones


*

*

NOTE-

A runway"s RSA begins a set distance prior khổng lồ the threshold và will extend a set distance beyond the end of the runway depending on the runway"s design criteria. If these required lengths cannot be achieved, the ASDA and/or LDA will be reduced as necessary khổng lồ obtain the required lengths lớn the extent practicable.


Low màn chơi Wind Shear/Microburst Detection Systems

Low cấp độ Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), Weather Systems Processor (WSP), and Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS) display information on hazardous wind shear & microburst activity in the vicinity of an airport to air traffic controllers who relay this information to pilots.

LLWAS provides wind shear alert & gust front information but does not provide microburst alerts. The LLWAS is designed lớn detect low level wind shear conditions around the periphery of an airport. It does not detect wind shear beyond that limitation. Controllers will provide this information lớn pilots by giving the pilot the airport wind followed by the boundary wind.
More advanced systems are in the field or being developed such as ITWS. ITWS provides alerts for microbursts, wind shear, and significant thunderstorm activity. ITWS displays wind information oriented khổng lồ the threshold or departure kết thúc of the runway.An airport equipped with the LLWAS, ITWS, or WSP is so indicated in the Chart Supplement under Weather Data Sources for that particular airport.Braking action Reports and AdvisoriesWhen available, ATC furnishes pilots the unique of braking action received from pilots. The unique of braking kích hoạt is described by the terms “good,” “good to medium,” “medium,” “medium lớn poor,” “poor,” & “nil.” When pilots report the unique of braking kích hoạt by using the terms noted above, they should use descriptive terms that are easily understood, such as, “braking kích hoạt poor the first/last half of the runway,” together with the particular type of aircraft.FICON NOTAMs will provide contaminant measurements for paved runways; however, a FICON NOTAM for braking kích hoạt will only be used for non-paved runway surfaces, taxiways, và aprons. These NOTAMs are classified according to the most critical term (“good lớn medium,” “medium,” “medium khổng lồ poor,” & “poor”).FICON NOTAM reporting of a braking condition for paved runway surfaces is not permissible by Federally Obligated Airports or those airports certificated under 14 CFR Part 139.A “NIL” braking condition at these airports must be mitigated by closure of the affected surface. Bởi not include the type of vehicle in the FICON NOTAM.During the time that braking kích hoạt advisories are in effect, ATC will issue the most recent braking action report for the runway in use lớn each arriving và departing aircraft. Pilots should be prepared for deteriorating braking conditions and should request current runway condition information if not issued by controllers. Pilots should also be prepared to lớn provide a descriptive runway condition report to controllers after landing.Runway Condition ReportsAircraft braking coefficient is dependent upon the surface friction between the tires on the aircraft wheels & the pavement surface. Less friction means less aircraft braking coefficient & less aircraft braking response.Runway condition code (Rwy
CC) values range from 1 (poor) to lớn 6 (dry). For frozen contaminants on runway surfaces, a runway condition code reading of 4 indicates the màn chơi when braking deceleration or directional control is between good và medium.

NOTE-

A Rwy
CC of “0” is used to delineate a braking action report of NIL & is prohibited from being reported in a FICON NOTAM.


Airport management should conduct runway condition assessments on wet runways or runways covered with compacted snow and/or ice.Numerical readings may be obtained by using the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM). The RCAM provides the airport operator with data to complete the report that includes the following:Runway(s) in use
Time of the assessment
Runway condition codes for each zone (touchdown, mid-point, roll-out)Pilot-reported braking kích hoạt report (if available)The contaminant (for example, wet snow, dry snow, slush, ice, etc.)Assessments for each zone (see 4-3-9c1(c)) will be issued in the direction of takeoff và landing on the runway, ranging from “1” to “6” lớn describe contaminated surfaces.

NOTE-

A Rwy
CC of “0” is used to delineate a braking kích hoạt report of NIL & is prohibited from being reported in a FICON NOTAM.


When any 1 or more runway condition codes are reported as less than 6, airport management must notify ATC for dissemination to lớn pilots.Controllers will not issue runway condition codes when all 3 segments of a runway are reporting values of 6.When runway condition code reports are provided by airport management, the ATC facility providing approach control or local airport advisory must provide the report to lớn all pilots.Pilots should use runway condition code information with other knowledge including aircraft performance characteristics, type, and weight, previous experience, wind conditions, và aircraft tire type (such as bias ply vs. Radial constructed) to determine runway suitability.The Runway Condition Assessment Matrix identifies the descriptive terms “good,” “good lớn medium,” “medium,” “medium to poor,” “poor,” and “nil” used in braking action reports.

REFERENCE-

Advisory Circular AC 91-79A (Revision 1), Mitigating the Risks of a Runway Overrun Upon Landing, Appendix 1.


*
Intersection TakeoffsIn order to lớn enhance airport capacities, reduce taxiing distances, minimize departure delays, và provide for more efficient movement of air traffic, controllers may initiate intersection takeoffs as well as approve them when the pilot requests. If for ANY reason a pilot prefers to use a different intersection or the full length of the runway or desires to lớn obtain the distance between the intersection and the runway end, THE PILOT IS EXPECTED khổng lồ INFORM ATC ACCORDINGLY.Controllers will issue the measured distance from the intersection lớn the runway end rounded “down” khổng lồ the nearest 50 feet khổng lồ any pilot who requests và to all military aircraft, unless use of the intersection is covered in appropriate directives. Controllers, however, will not be able khổng lồ inform pilots of the distance from the intersection to lớn the kết thúc of any of the published declared distances.

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An aircraft is expected to taxi lớn (but not onto) the end of the assigned runway unless prior approval for an intersection departure is received from ground control.Pilots should state their position on the airport when calling the tower for takeoff from a runway intersection.

EXAMPLE-

Cleveland Tower, Apache Three Seven Two Two Papa, at the intersection of taxiway Oscar và runway two three right, ready for departure.


Controllers are required lớn separate small aircraft that are departing from an intersection on the same runway (same or opposite direction) behind a large nonheavy aircraft (except B757), by ensuring that at least a 3-minute interval exists between the time the preceding large aircraft has taken off & the succeeding small aircraft begins takeoff roll. The 3-minute separation requirement will also be applied to lớn small aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or less departing behind a small aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 12,500 pounds. Lớn inform the pilot of the required 3-minute hold, the controller will state, “Hold for wake turbulence.” If after considering wake turbulence hazards, the pilot feels that a lesser time interval is appropriate, the pilot may request a waiver to lớn the 3-minute interval. To lớn initiate such a request, simply say “Request waiver lớn 3-minute interval” or a similar statement. Controllers may then issue a takeoff clearance if other traffic permits, since the pilot has accepted the responsibility for wake turbulence separation.The 3-minute interval is not required when the intersection is 500 feet or less from the departure point of the preceding aircraft và both aircraft are taking off in the same direction. Controllers may permit the small aircraft to lớn alter course after takeoff to avoid the flight path of the preceding departure.A 4-minute interval is mandatory for small, large, và heavy aircraft behind a super aircraft. The 3-minute interval is mandatory behind a heavy aircraft in all cases, và for small aircraft behind a B757.Pilot Responsibilities When Conducting Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO)Pilot Responsibilities và Basic Procedures.LAHSO Situational AwarenessLow ApproachA low approach (sometimes referred lớn as a low pass) is the go-around maneuver following an approach. Instead of landing or making a touch-and-go, a pilot may wish to go around (low approach) in order lớn expedite a particular operation (a series of practice instrument approaches is an example of such an operation). Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, the low approach should be made straight ahead, with no turns or climb made until the pilot has made a thorough visual kiểm tra for other aircraft in the area.When operating within a Class B, Class C, and Class D surface area, a pilot intending khổng lồ make a low approach should liên hệ the tower for approval. This request should be made prior lớn starting the final approach.Traffic Control Light SignalsThe following procedures are used by ATCTs in the control of aircraft, ground vehicles, equipment, và personnel not equipped with radio. These same procedures will be used to lớn control aircraft, ground vehicles, equipment, và personnel equipped with radio if radio liên hệ cannot be established. ATC personnel use a directive traffic control signal which emits an intense narrow light beam of a selected color (either red, white, or green) when controlling traffic by light signals.Although the traffic signal light offers the advantage that some control may be exercised over nonradio equipped aircraft, pilots should be cognizant of the disadvantages which are:Pilots may not be looking at the control tower at the time a signal is directed toward their aircraft.The directions transmitted by a light signal are very limited since only approval or disapproval of a pilot"s anticipated actions may be transmitted. No supplement or explanatory information may be transmitted except by the use of the “General Warning Signal” which advises the pilot to be on the alert.Between sunset and sunrise, a pilot wishing to attract the attention of the control tower should turn on a landing light & taxi the aircraft into a position, clear of the active runway, so that light is visible to lớn the tower. The landing light should remain on until appropriate signals are received from the tower.CommunicationsThe tower controller will consider that pilots of turbine-powered aircraft are ready for takeoff when they reach the runway or warm-up block unless advised otherwise.The majority of ground control frequencies are in the 121.6-121.9 MHz bandwidth. Ground control frequencies are provided khổng lồ eliminate frequency congestion on the tower (local control) frequency and are limited to communications between the tower and aircraft on the ground và between the tower and utility vehicles on the airport, provide a clear VHF channel for arriving and departing aircraft. They are used for issuance of xe taxi information, clearances, and other necessary contacts between the tower and aircraft or other vehicles operated on the airport. A pilot who has just landed should not change from the tower frequency khổng lồ the ground control frequency until directed to do so by the controller. Normally, only one ground control frequency is assigned at an airport; however, at locations where the amount of traffic so warrants, a second ground control frequency and/or another frequency designated as a clearance delivery frequency, may be assigned.A controller may omit the ground or local control frequency if the controller believes the pilot knows which frequency is in use. If the ground control frequency is in the 121 MHz bandwidth the controller may omit the numbers preceding the decimal point; e.g., 121.7, “CONTACT GROUND POINT SEVEN.” However, if any doubt exists as lớn what frequency is in use, the pilot should promptly request the controller lớn provide that information.Controllers will normally avoid issuing a radio frequency change to lớn helicopters, known to be single-piloted, which are hovering, air taxiing, or flying near the ground. At times, it may be necessary for pilots to lớn alert ATC regarding single pilot operations to lớn minimize delay of essential ATC communications. Whenever possible, ATC instructions will be relayed through the frequency being monitored until a frequency change can be accomplished. You must promptly advise ATC if you are unable to comply with a frequency change. Also, you should advise ATC if you must land to lớn accomplish the frequency change unless it is clear the landing will have no impact on other air traffic; e.g., on a taxiway or in a helicopter operating area.Gate Holding Due to Departure DelaysPilots should tương tác ground control or clearance delivery prior to starting engines as gate hold procedures will be in effect whenever departure delays exceed or are anticipated to lớn exceed 15 minutes. The sequence for departure will be maintained in accordance with initial điện thoại tư vấn up unless modified by flow control restrictions. Pilots should monitor the ground control or clearance delivery frequency for engine startup advisories or new proposed start time if the delay changes.The tower controller will consider that pilots of turbine-powered aircraft are ready for takeoff when they reach the runway or warm-up block unless advised otherwise.VFR Flights in Terminal Areas

Use reasonable restraint in exercising the prerogative of VFR flight, especially in terminal areas. The weather minimums và distances from clouds are minimums. Giving yourself a greater margin in specific instances is just good judgment.

Approach Area. Conducting a VFR operation in a Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E surface area when the official visibility is 3 or 4 miles is not prohibited, but good judgment would dictate that you keep out of the approach area.Reduced Visibility. It has always been recognized that precipitation reduces forward visibility. Consequently, although again it may be perfectly legal to lớn cancel your IFR flight plan at any time you can proceed VFR, it is good practice, when precipitation is occurring, khổng lồ continue IFR operation into a terminal area until you are reasonably close khổng lồ your destination.Simulated Instrument Flights. In conducting simulated instrument flights, be sure that the weather is good enough to compensate for the restricted visibility of the safety pilot và your greater concentration on your flight instruments. Give yourself a little greater margin when your flight plan lies in or near a busy airway or close lớn an airport.VFR Helicopter Operations at Controlled AirportsGeneral.The following ATC procedures and phraseologies recognize the unique capabilities of helicopters and were developed khổng lồ improve service lớn all users. Helicopter kiến thiết characteristics và user needs often require operations from movement areas và nonmovement areas within the airport boundary. In order for ATC to properly apply these procedures, it is essential that pilots familiarize themselves with the local operations and make it known to lớn controllers when additional instructions are necessary.Insofar as possible, helicopter operations will be instructed lớn avoid the flow of fixed-wing aircraft khổng lồ minimize overall delays; however, there will be many situations where faster/larger helicopters may be integrated with fixed-wing aircraft for the benefit of all concerned. Examples would include IFR flights, avoidance of noise sensitive areas, or use of runways/taxiways lớn minimize the hazardous effects of rotor downwash in congested areas.Because helicopter pilots are intimately familiar with the effects of rotor downwash, they are best qualified khổng lồ determine if a given operation can be conducted safely. Accordingly, the pilot has the final authority with respect to lớn the specific airspeed/altitude combinations. ATC clearances are in no way intended to place the helicopter in a hazardous position. It is expected that pilots will advise ATC if a specific clearance will cause undue hazards khổng lồ persons or property.Controllers normally limit ATC ground service & instruction lớn movement areas; therefore, operations from nonmovement areas are conducted at pilot discretion and should be based on local policies, procedures, or letters of agreement. In order to lớn maximize the flexibility of helicopter operations, it is necessary lớn rely heavily on sound pilot judgment. For example, hazards such as debris, obstructions, vehicles, or personnel must be recognized by the pilot, and action should be taken as necessary lớn avoid such hazards. Taxi, hover taxi, và air taxi operations are considered to be ground movements. Helicopters conducting such operations are expected to lớn adhere lớn the same conditions, requirements, và practices as apply khổng lồ other ground taxiing và ATC procedures in the AIM.The phraseology taxi is used when it is intended or expected that the helicopter will xe taxi on the airport surface, either via taxiways or other prescribed routes. Taxi is used primarily for helicopters equipped with wheels or in response lớn a pilot request. Preference should be given to lớn this procedure whenever it is necessary to minimize effects of rotor downwash.Pilots may request a hover taxi when slow forward movement is desired or when it may be appropriate to move very short distances. Pilots should avoid this procedure if rotor downwash is likely lớn cause damage lớn parked aircraft or if blowing dust/snow could obscure visibility. If it is necessary to operate above 25 feet AGL when hover taxiing, the pilot should initiate a request khổng lồ ATC.Takeoff và Landing Procedures.Helicopter operations may be conducted from a runway, taxiway, portion of a landing strip, or any clear area which could be used as a landing site such as the scene of an accident, a construction site, or the roof of a building. The terms used lớn describe designated areas from which helicopters operate are: movement area, landing/takeoff area, apron/ramp, heliport & helipad (See Pilot/Controller Glossary). These areas may be improved or unimproved & may be separate from or located on an airport/heliport. ATC will issue takeoff clearances from movement areas other than active runways, or in diverse directions from active runways, with additional instructions as necessary. Whenever possible, takeoff clearance will be issued in lieu of extended hover/air xe taxi operations. Phraseology will be “CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF FROM (taxiway, helipad, runway number, etc.), MAKE RIGHT/ LEFT TURN FOR (direction, heading, NAVAID radial) DEPARTURE/DEPARTURE ROUTE (number, name, etc.).” Unless requested by the pilot, downwind takeoffs will not be issued if the tailwind exceeds 5 knots.Pilots should be alert to lớn wind information as well as to wind indications in the vicinity of the helicopter. ATC should be advised of the intended method of departing. A pilot request khổng lồ takeoff in a given direction indicates that the pilot is willing to lớn accept the wind condition và controllers will honor the request if traffic permits. Departure points could be a significant distance from the control tower & it may be difficult or impossible for the controller khổng lồ determine the helicopter"s relative position khổng lồ the wind.If takeoff is requested from nonmovement areas, an area not authorized for helicopter use, an area not visible from the tower, an unlighted area at night, or an area off the airport, the phraseology “DEPARTURE FROM (requested location) WILL BE AT YOUR OWN RISK (additional instructions, as necessary). USE CAUTION (if applicable)." The pilot is responsible for operating in a safe manner và should exercise due caution.Similar phraseology is used for helicopter landing operations. Every effort will be made to lớn permit helicopters khổng lồ proceed direct và land as near as possible khổng lồ their final destination on the airport. Traffic density, the need for detailed taxiing instructions, frequency congestion, or other factors may affect the extent to lớn which service can be expedited. As with ground movement operations, a high degree of pilot/controller cooperation & communication is necessary to lớn achieve safe and efficient operations.TaxiingGeneral. Approval must be obtained prior khổng lồ moving an aircraft or vehicle onto the movement area during the hours an Airport Traffic Control Tower is in operation.Always state your position on the airport when calling the tower for taxi instructions.The control tower also issues bulletins describing areas where they cannot provide ATC service due to lớn nonvisibility or other reasons.A clearance must be obtained prior lớn taxiing on a runway, taking off, or landing during the hours an Airport Traffic Control Tower is in operation.A clearance must be obtained prior to lớn crossing any runway. ATC will issue an explicit clearance for all runway crossings.When assigned a takeoff runway, ATC will first specify the runway, issue taxi instructions, and state any hold short instructions or runway crossing clearances if the taxi route will cross a runway. This does not authorize the aircraft khổng lồ “enter” or “cross” the assigned departure runway at any point. In order khổng lồ preclude misunderstandings in radio communications, ATC will not use the word “cleared” in conjunction with authorization for aircraft khổng lồ taxi.When issuing taxi instructions to lớn any point other than an assigned takeoff runway, ATC will specify the point to taxi to, issue taxi instructions, and state any hold short instructions or runway crossing clearances if the taxi route will cross a runway.
*

PQ
Perfect Queen
26 mon 2 2020

I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined.

1. A. Traffic B. Pavement C. Plane D. Station

2. A. Recycle B. Vehicle C. Helicopter D. Reverse

3. A. Railway B. Mail C. Sail D. Captain

4. A. Sign B. Mistake C. Triangle D. Drive

5. A. Nearest B. Head C. Bread D. Health

II. Find the odd once out A, B, C or D.

1. A. Riding B. Driving C. Gardening D. Flying

2. A. No cycling B. No parking C. No right turn D. Sign

3. A. Train B. Plane C. Oto D. Sail

4. A. By oto B. On foot C. By bus D. By bicycle

5. A. Rule B. Ride C. Reverse D. Drive


Đúng(0)
Dưới đó là một vài thắc mắc có thể tương quan tới thắc mắc mà bạn gửi lên. Rất có thể trong đó tất cả câu trả lời mà bạn cần!
TN
Trần Nguyễn Xuân Mai
20 tháng 1 2018

11. Find the odd once out A, B, C or D

1. A. Riding B. Driving C. Gardening D. Flying

2. A. No cycling. B. No parking C. No right turn D. Sign

3. A train B. Plane C. Oto D. Sail

4. A. By car B. On foot C. By bus D. By bicycle

5. A. Rule B. Ride C. Reverse D. Drive


#Tiếng anh thí điểm lớp 7
4
*

CD
Cầm Đức Anh
20 mon 1 2018

11. Find the odd once out A, B, C or D

1. A. Riding B. Driving C. Gardening D. Flying

2. A. No cycling. B. No parking C. No right turn D. Sign

3. A train B. Plane C. Car D. Sail

4. A. By oto B. On foot C. By bus D. By bicycle

5. A. Rule B. Ride C. Reverse D. Drive


Đúng(0)
DN
Đỗ Ngọc Khanh
21 mon 1 2018

This my answer:

1-D.flying

2-D.Sign

3-D.sail

4-B.on foot

5-C.reverse


Đúng(0)
DP
Đinh Phương
27 tháng 2 2020
I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined.1. A. Traffic B. Pavement C. Plane D. Station2. A. Recycle B. Vehicle C. Helicopter D. Reverse3. A. Railway B. Mail C. Sail D. Captain4. A. Sign B. Mistake C. Triangle D. Drive5. A. Nearest B. Head C. Bread D. Health
II. Find the odd once out A, B, C or D.1. A. Riding B. Driving C. Gardening D. Flying2. A. No cycling B. No parking C. No right turn D. Sign3. A. Train B. Plane C. Oto D. Sail4. A. By oto B. On...
Đọc tiếp

I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined.

1. A. Traffic B. Pavement C. Plane D. Station

2. A. Recycle B. Vehicle C. Helicopter D. Reverse

3. A. Railway B. Mail C. Sail D. Captain

4. A. Sign B. Mistake C. Triangle D. Drive

5. A. Nearest B. Head C. Bread D. Health

II. Find the odd once out A, B, C or D.

1. A. Riding B. Driving C. Gardening D. Flying

2. A. No cycling B. No parking C. No right turn D. Sign

3. A. Train B. Plane C. Car D. Sail

4. A. By oto B. On foot C. By bus D. By bicycle

5. A. Rule B. Ride C. Reverse D. Drive


#Tiếng anh thí điểm lớp 7
1
*

TL
Tống Linh Trang
29 tháng 2 2020

I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined.

1. A. Traffic B. Pavement C. Plane D. Station

2. A. Recycle B. Vehicle C. Helicopter D. Reverse

3. A. Railway B. Mail C. Sail D. Captain

4. A. Sign B. mistake C. Triangle D. Drive

5. A. Nearest B. Head C. Bread D. Health

II. Find the odd once out A, B, C or D.

1. A. Riding B. Driving C. Gardening D. Flying

2. A. No cycling B. No parking C. No right turn D. Sign

3. A. Train B. Plane C. Car D. Sail

4. A. By car B. On foot C. By bus D. By bicycle

5. A. Rule B. Ride C. Reverse D. Drive


Đúng(0)
TH
Thu HIền
25 tháng bốn 2019

Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined. Read the words aloud

1A rest B help C garden D identify

2A trafic B pavement C plane D station

3 A sign B mistake C triangle D drive

4 A nearest B head C bread D health

5 A railway B mail C sail D captain


#Tiếng anh thử nghiệm lớp 7
1
*

UA
Uni Annie
26 tháng 4 2019

1.C

2.A

3.B

4.A

5.D


Đúng(0)
NM
Nguyễn Minh Tuyết
4 tháng 3 2020
I/Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined.1. A. Car B. Date C. Lazy D. Hate2. A. Train B. Wait C. Said D. Paid3. A. Sailing B. Railway C. Brainstorm D. Captain4. A. Safety B. Chat C. Taste D. Waste5. A. Centre B. Let C. Belt D. Security6. A. Safety B. Traffic C. Station D. Plane7. A. Seat B. Head C. Heavy D. Weather8. A. Head B. Break C. Bread D. Heavy9. A. Maid B. Wait C. Said D. Sail10. A. Hey B. Grey C. Honey D. Obey11. A. Lake B. Came C....
Đọc tiếp

I/Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined. 1. A. Car B. Date C. Lazy D. Hate

2. A. Train B. Wait C. Said D. Paid

3. A. Sailing B. Railway C. Brainstorm D. Captain

4. A. Safety B. Chat C. Taste D. Waste

5. A. Centre B. Let C. Belt D. Security

6. A. Safety B. Traffic C. Station D. Plane

7. A. Seat B. Head C. Heavy D. Weather

8. A. Head B. Break C. Bread D. Heavy

9. A. Maid B. Wait C. Said D. Sail

10. A. Hey B. Grey C. Honey D. Obey

11. A. Lake B. Came C. Station D. Start

12. A. Seatbelt B. Bread C. Ahead D. Healthy

13. A. Nature B. Ancient C. Radio D. Village

14. A. Enter B. Mention C. Vehicle D. Helicopter

15. A. Take B. Mistake C. Indicate D. Says

16 A. Traffic B. Pavement C. Plane D. Station

17. A. Recycle B. Vehicle C. Helicopter D. Reverse

18. A. Sign B. Mistake C. Triangle D. Drive

19. A. Nearest B. Head C. Bread D. Health

20. A. Railway B. Mail C. Sail D. Captain

II. Choose the best answer (A, B, C or D). 1. Cyclist and motorist have to wear a when they ride a motorbike.

A. Cap B. Mask C. Helmet D. Hard that

2. He forgot to give a before he turned left & got a ticket.

A. Hand B. Signal C. Sign D. Light

3. All of us have lớn obey strictly.

A. Traffic B. Traffic rules C. Traffic jam D. Regular

4. We should wait for the traffic lights before we cross the street.

A. Turn yellow B. Turn green C. To turn yellow D. Lớn turn green

5. Drivers have lớn your seatbelt whenever they drive.

A. Tie B. Fasten C. Put on D. Put

6. We should the street at the zebra crossing.

A. Walk B. Walk through C. Walk on D. Walk across

7. Is it from your house to the nearest bus stop?” – “about 50 metres”.

A. How much B. How long C. How far D. How often

8. Linh used to jigsaw puzzles in his spare time.

A. Bởi vì B. Does C. Doing D. Did

9. Public in this thành phố is quite good, & it’s not expensive.

A. Vehicle B. Travel C. Transport D. Journey

10. I marbles when i was young, but now i didn’t.

A.play B. Used to lớn play C. Have played D. Didn’t use to play

11. There a bus station in the thành phố centre, but it has been moved to the suburbs.

A. Were B. Used to lớn have C. Use lớn have D. Used to lớn be

12. Does it take lớn go from ha noi lớn ho bỏ ra minh thành phố by plane.

A. How much B. How many C. How long D. How far

13. Minh used lớn his homework late in the evening.

A. Bởi vì B. Does C. Doing D. Did

14. If people the rules, there are no more accidents.

A. Follow B. Take care of C. Obey D. Remember

15. You should right & left when you go across the road.

A. See B. Look C. Be D. Take

16. Hurry up or we can’t___________ the last bus home. A. Keep B. Follow C. Go D. Catch

17. Lan used to lớn go lớn school .

A. With bike B. By foot C. In car D. By bus

18. Public in my town is good & cheap.

A. Travel B. Journey C. Tour D. Transport

19. When there is a traffic jam, it me a very long time khổng lồ go home.

A. Takes B. Costs C. Spends D. Lasts

20. Yesterday rick & peter round west lake. It took them an hour.

A.cycle B. Cycles C. Cycling D. Cycled

III. Complete the sentences with “used to” or “didn’t use to”. 1. I lượt thích sports, but now I bởi a lot of different sports.

2. I be afraid of heights, but then I started climbing hills.

3. I lượt thích putting my head in the water because I couldn’t swim.

4. I go skating until I met Anna in Switzerland, and then we have practised a lot so far.

5. I go to lớn school on foot, but now I ride a bicycle to school. IV. Make sentences using the words and phrases given. 1. Another problem/ the increase/ the number/ cars/ the road. ........................................................................................................................

2. There/ transport rules/ but/ many people/ not seen/ really interested/ follow/ them. ........................................................................................................................ 3. The traffic/ worst/ rush hours/ when/ everyone/ try/ get to lớn work/ get trang chủ quickly. ........................................................................................................................

4. Some people/ ride/ motorbikes/ the pavements/ rather than/ waiting/ a traffic jam. ........................................................................................................................

5. The traffic/ a nightmare/ visitors/ Viet Nam/ the first time. ........................................................................................................................

6. More people/ own/ private cars/ it/ make/ the problem/ the traffic jams/ worse. ........................................................................................................................

7. Pedestrians/ get injured/ hit easily/ when/ they/ walk/ the pavements/ cross the roads/ such times.

........................................................................................................................

8. Road users/ very impatient/ quite aggressive/ constantly using their horns/ even shouting/ others. ........................................................................................................................

9. Three or four people/ one motorbike/ a common sight/ particularly/ young people. ........................................................................................................................

10. Some people/ install/ air horn/ their motorbikes/ this/ really annoying/ other people/ sometimes/ it cause/ accidents. ........................................................................................................................ V. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. 1. Did you often go to the beach when you lived in Nha Trang?

Did you use ................................................................................................... ?

2. Linda doesn’t live with her parents any more. Linda used ...................................................................................................... 3. I don’t have time to collect stamps as when I was in primary school.

I used..............................................................................................................

4. He is not a poor man any more, but he becomes a rich businessman. He used ..........................................................................................................

5. They didn’t often go to the cinema every Sunday last year. They didn’t use ...............................................................................................

6. My hair now is much longer than that in the past. In the past my hair used .................................................................................

7. I usually stayed up late khổng lồ watch football matches last year, but now I don’t. I used.............................................................................................................. 8. There were some trees in the field, but now there aren’t any. There used......................................................................................................